History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families

18 HI O- FTXS

been secured, still flowing water has been
fund in several places; for example, various
localities in Robertson county and at Livingston,
Polk county.
The lower cross timbers form the second
"catchment" basin, but from their location
have not been found to yield as goodla flow
as can be obtained by going deeper, to the
Trinity sands.
The Carrizo sandstone outcrops along a
line drawn at a point on tlie Nneces river
south of the town of Uvalde to a point ten
miles west of Carrizo Springs, and ten
miles north of that point, on the ranch of
Mr. Vivian, produces a stream of excellent
water four inches in diameter from a well
175 feet deep. Thlis stratum of sandstone
ought to be reached at Laredo at a depth of
from 500 to 600 feet.
The third and possibly best explored collecting
area is that of the Trinity sands.
This bed, tle Trinity or upper cross timber
sands, is the base of the Lower Cretaceous
system, and is the great water-bearing bed
east and south of the central basin. In its
many exposures and from the material.
brought up from it in boring, its composition
is shown to be clear white grains of
quartz, slightly rounded to much worn, containing
a few grains of red and black chert.
It is for the most part practically free of
soluble mineral matter, and the water derived
from it is often of excellent quality. From
its position, character and extent it forms a
most important member in the geology of
Texas. The water which falls upon the exposed
edge of this belt is carried under the
limestone of the Grand prairie plateau, and
part of it breaks forth in a system of great
s. prings which extend fromWilliamson/county
by Austin, San Marcos and New Blaunfels,
toward the Pecos. These springs are natu

ral artesian wells, which owe their existence
to the fault lines caused by the disturbances,
already alluded to, which formed the Balcones.
The remainder of the water continues
its course below the overlying formations,
and can be reached at almost any point
east and south of the Grand prairie to the
border of the basal clays of the Tertiary.
Wells are very numerous and vary in depth
with distance from catchment area from 100
to 2,000 feet. They can not be named in
detail here, but the principal boring has been
at Fort Worth, Dallas, Waco, Austin, Taylor,
San Antonio, and in Somervell, Coryell,
Hood and Bosque counties. These prove
that artesian conditions exist, and there can
be no doubt that wells bored in suitable
localities will prove successful.
West of thle Grand prairie plateau we find
the central basin region, which is principally
occupied by strata of the Paleozoic formations.
The eastern and southern border of
this area is plainly marked by the scarp of
the Grand prairie. Its western border is not
determined further than that in Texas it is
terminated by the Guadaloupe mountains in
El Paso county. In its topography it shows
a gradual elevation toward the west, most
usually, however, in a series of steps which
rise one above the other, having the ascent
facing toward the southeast and a long gentle
slope toward the west, the average rise being
less than eight feet per mile.
At the edge of the Staked Plain, which is
a newer formation superimposed upon these,
there is an abrupt elevation of from 200 to
300 feet in places, and a continued rise
toward the west to a height of 3,100 feet.
West of the Pecos the rise is much more
rapid, being about fifteen feet per mile. The
dip of the strata, which on the east is toward
the northwest not exceeding forty feet to the

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HISTORY F TXA8

Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed July 22, 2014.