History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families

HISTORY OF TEXAS. 181
mile, is reversed, that is, it is to the south- series of sandstones and shales are exposed
east, and brings the edges of the strata to the on the southeastern border, and the flowing
surface again after crossing the river. In wells at and around Trickham and Waldrip
the southeast corner of this region we find find their supply in them. The conditions
the Archaean area of Llano county, around are very favorable in the valley of the Colowhich
the upturned edges of the older paleo- rado and some distance north, between the
zoic rocks are exposed at a considerably 99th and 100th meridianls, for similar wells.
greater elevation than that of tle basin north The rocks of this age are covered by later
of them, giving the overlying rocks of the deposits in the Wichita Inounltailns, and it is
basin itself a northward dip. therefore impossible to judge of the possibilThe
western extension of this southern ity of their water-bearing character there.
border has not been examined. We find the Similar rocks are exposed on tlhe western
northern border of our basin in the Wichita border of this basin, in thle vicinity of Van
mountains in the Indian Territory, where the Horn and further north in the Guadaloupe
edge of the Silurian rocks is again exposed mountains. They are reached by a well 832
at a higher altitude than the interior portion feet deep at Toyah, some seventy miles east
of our region. This region is, therefore, of of Van Ilorn. This well has an abundant
a basin form of structure, with the exposed flow. We have, therefore, in the lower meemedges
of its lower members and the under- bers of the Carboniferous rocks of this basil
lying rocks topographically higher on tlle water-bearing strata, tlle exposed edges of
northern, western and southern borders thaa which on the southeast and west are suffion
the east or in the center. ciently elevated to furnish artesian water to
The formations which occupy this ba-in, portions of thle basins in their immediate
if we except some overlying cretaceous and vicinity.
the plains formation, are almost entirely con- We do not know what interruptions to tlhe
fined to the Carboniferous and Permian sys- subterranean flow may exist in tlhe way of
terns. These consist of beds of limestone, dikes or fissures, and therefore thle areal exsandstone,
sands, clays and sales, with coal, tent of this portion favorably situated cannot
* gypsum and salt as associated deposits. The be given until the topography and geology
general dip of all the strata in the eastern are better known. The quality of thle water
portion of the basis is to thle northwest, but from every well thus far secured in this
its elevation along the eastern border is less basin, which has its origin in this series of
than in almost any other portion of it; conse- rocks, is highly saline, and it is safe to
quently there can be little hope of finding assume from this and from the character of
artesian water from any catchmnent area on the deposits that no fresh water can be obthis
side, although some of the strata (the tained from this source. Therefore, if the
lower sandstone and shales) are well adapted supply be general over the entire region, it
for carrying water, and where suitable topo- will only be adapted for limited uses. In
graphic conditions exist do furnish artesian addition to this, this water-bearing bed can
water. An instance of this is found in the be reached in the greater portion of the
flowing well at Gordon, but such cases are region only after passing through thle entire
the exception and not thle rule. The same series of Permnian strata and those of the up

Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed December 19, 2014.