History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families

--~~~~~~ISO~ O TXS.1

tend themselves by force, if necessary, against
any invading party; but professional soldiers
make poor agriculturists. The first season
their crops were meager on account of the
drouth, and they maintained themselves for
a time by the products of the chase. While
thus weakened, a force was sent against them
Mexico, which they could not resist, and
,iallemnand returned to the United States,
while the rest of the colonists scattered, a
great part of theIn probably to Barrataria, at
that time controlled by the notorious Lafitte.
Old international questions being now revived
as to the ownership of the Floridas and
the boundaries of the Louisiana Territory,
many propositions and counter propositions
were made and refused, with the final result,
February 22, 1819, in the form of a treaty
signed by the Spanish minister Onis, and the
American Secretary of State, by which the
Floridas were ceded to the United States and
Texas permitted to remain in the hands of
Spain. The boundary line between the
United States and the Spanish possessions
was defined as follows: Beginning at the
mouth of the Sabine river, continue north
along the western bank of that river to latitude
32; thence by a line due north to the
degree of latitude where it strikes Red river;
then following the course of that river, westward
to longitude 23 west from Washington;
crossing said river, run by a line due
north to the Arkansas, following the southern
bank of that river to its source in latitude
42 north, and thence by that parallel to the
Pacific.
The king of Spain, however, failed to ratify
the treaty within the six months prescribed,
and when he did ratify it, October 24, 1820,
the controversy was renewed, the United
States being strongly disinclined to recognize
tlle late convention. From the first the treaty

had caused wide-spread dissatisfaction, and a
strong party maintained that valuable territory
had been given away by the American
government for a very interior one, while a
fundamental principle of the United States
was violated in ceding away territory of any
kind under any circumstances; but after a
year or two of discussion the United States
Congress advised the President to ratify the
treaty, and accordingly, February 28, 1821,
John Quincy Adams informed the Spanish
envoy that President Monroe had accepted
the ratification.
In natural connection with the foregoing,
the angry feeling, aroused by the treaty, was
exhibited in a practical manner at Natchez,
Mississippi, by another attempt to organize
an expedition for the purpose of revolutionizing
Texas. James Long was appointed
leader of the enterprise, and in June he
started with great enthusiasm for Nacogdoches,
accompanied by about seventy-five men,
which number was rapidly increased. Soon
after arriving at that place lie could muster
over 300 men, among them Bernardo Gutierrez
and Samuel Davenport. He inmmediately
proceeded to establish a civil government,
under the control of a supreme council,
of which he was chosen president. June 23
this council declared the province of Texas a
free and independent republic, and it proceeded
to enact laws for the government of
the same and providing for revenue by the
sale of public lands. Various agencies were
established, at different points, for mercantile
and governmental business.
For aid, Long left Cook in command at
Nacogdoches while lie hastened on to Galveston
to enlist the sympathy and assistance
of Lafitte, who at that time was in the height
of his glory there; but the wily Frenchman
told him that it ever had been useless to re

AISTOP Y OP TEXS.

Of

Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed July 28, 2014.