History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families

94 HISTORY OF TEXA&~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r

feared on the other side of the Rio Grande
with a large herd of cattle for the use of the
invading army, and, immediately crossing the
river, took part in the conflict by attacking
the rear of Cortina's army. The Mexican
commander, however, succeeded in repulsing
both Ford and the French, who retreated to
Bagdad. Cortina next turned his attention
to Ford. On the 9th he passed with his whole
force and drove the Texans from Brownsville,
and took possession of the town for the
United States.
Governor Pendleton Murrah, of Texas, on
his accession to the executive chair, found
many unusual perplexities, the State being
harassed, and currency down to 3 or 4 cents
on the dollar, and all three branches of the
government usurped by military proclamation,
etc. He therefore convened the legislature
in extra session, to meet May 11, 1864.
But the terrible evils under which Texas was
laboring could not be remedied in a short
time, and before any measure of relief could
take signal effect, the end of the great war
came. Kirby Smith, however, had the hardihood
of protracting the war in Texas some
weeks after the surrender of Lee at Appomattox,
but finally surrendered to General
Canby, May 26. But the last engagement in
the great war took place May 13, near the old
battle-field of Palo Alto, the scene of Taylor's
victory over Arista.
AFTER THE WAR.
After the formal surrender of Smith and
Magruder, Governor Murrah retired to Mexico,
and June 19, General Granger, of the United
States Army, assumed temporary command.
On the 17th President Johnson, in pursuance
of his plan of reconstruction, appointed Andrew
J. Hamilton provisional governor of

Texas. May 29, the president issued a
proclamation granting an amnesty, with certain
exceptions, to persons who had been engaged
in the rebellion, on condition of their
taking an oath of allegiance. Governor Hamilton
arrived at Galveston near the close of
July, and began the reorganization of the
State government, under the old regime, by
proclaiming an election, where loyal persons
may vote for State and all other necessary
officers. Both President Johnson and Governor
Hamilton were so liberal that the anti.
Union men of Texas had hopes of gaining
control of the government.
But the greatest practical question now
coming up was the disposition of the freed
blacks. The course of Congress soon assured
the public that the negroes would have all the
rights of citizenship, so far as national legistion
could make them. President Johnson
seemed to be in haste to re-install the old
Confederates in power under the Federal
Government. During the years 1865-'66 he
pardoned over 600 persons in Texas alone
who were not included in the amnesty proclamation
he had issued. He "soured" on certain
prominent Republicans in Congress, and
seemed to desire to obtain a preponderance
of Southern or Democratic element in that
body as soon as possible.
After the final victory of Northern arms,
the Unionists in Texas, and especially the
Federal soldiers, were peculiarly exposed to
the vengeance of the more riotous element of
the vanquished Confederates, and considerable
persecution and some murders were indulged
in. Only in the vicinity of the garrisoned
towns and posts was security of person and
property maintained. Even the courts were
warped, according to General Custer's (Fed.
eral) testimony. Said he: "Since the establishment
of the provisional government in

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HISTORYII OF TEXA-9.g

Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed September 17, 2014.