ART. 160. The judicial power in each state shall be exercised by the
tribunals established by their constitutions, and all causes as well civil
as criminal which originate in such courts must be therein finally disposed
Of the Oblzgations of the States.
ART. 161. Each state is bound;
1. To organize its government agreeably to the constitution and the
2. To punish through their governors, their constitutions and laws.
3. To cause the constitution and general laws of the Union to be observed,
as well as all treaties made or to be made with foreign powers.
4. To protect its inhabitants in the enjoyment of the liberty of writing,
printing and publishing their political ideas, without license, or
previous revision or approbation, causing however the laws relative to
this matter to be duly observed.
5. To surrender criminals to the governments of other states, claiming
6. To surrender fugitives from other states to the persons justly claiming
them or compel them in some other mode to satisfy the party interested.
T. To contribute to the extinguishment of the debts acknowledged by
8. To send annually to each of the chambers of congress a circumstantial
account of the receipts and expenditures of the treasuries in
their respective districts. with the origin of each, the state of agriculture,
commerce and manufactures, of the new modes of industry which
might be usefully introduced and protected, as well as the population
and the means of protecting and augmenting the same.
9. To forward to the chambers, and in the recess to the council ;:f
government, and the executive power, a copy of their constitutions and
The Restrictions of t/e Powers of the States.
ART. 162. No state can,
1. Establish tonnage duties nor ports of entry without consent of
2. Impose duties on imports and exports without consent of congress.
3. Have a standing army or navy without the consent of congress.
4. Engage in transactions or declare war with foreign powers, resisting
them however in case of actual invasion, of which immediate notice
is given to congress.
5. Enter upon any transaction with other states of the Union, without
consent of congress, or its subsequent approval if. it has reference
Gammel, Hans Peter Mareus Neilsen. The Laws of Texas, 1822-1897 Volume 1. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth5872/. Accessed December 20, 2013.