8. To appoint the officers of the army, of the active and the armed
militia with reference to existing laws and ordinances, and the dispositions
of the constitution.
9. To grant discharges and licenses, and to regulate the pay of the
military officers mentioned in the preceding articles in conformity to law.
10. To appoint the diplomatic agents and consuls, with the approbation
of the senate, and until that body shall have been organised, with
the approbation of the actual congress.
11. To direct diplomatic negotiations, make treaties of peace, friendship,
alliance, federation, truce, armed neutrality, commerce and others;
but in order to grant or refuse the ratification of any such treaty, it must
obtain the previous approbation of the general congress.
12. To watch over the prompt and complete administration of justice
by the general tribunals, and that their sentences be executed according
13. To cause to be published, circulated and observed, the laws and
the general constitution; possessing the right of opposing once the passage
of a law, provided it be done within ten days, and to suspend its execution
until the resolves of congress be known.
14. To issue decrees and orders for the better carrying into effect the
constitution and the general laws.
15. To suspend from their employments for the space of three months
or less, and to deprive of a portion of their salaries not to exceed one
half, for the same period of time, all the officers of the Federation, infringing
such orders or decrees, and in cases where it shall be deemed
necessary, have them tried, in which event all the proceedings must be
transferred to the competent tribunal.
ART. 17. All the decrees and orders of the supreme executive power
ought to be signed by the secretary of that department to which they belong,
and without this formality they are not to be obeyed.
ART. 18. Every person inhabiting the territory of the Federation, has
the right to require the prompt, complete, and impartial administration
of justice; and with this object the Federation confides the administration
of justice to a supreme court of justice, and to such tribunals as
may be established in the separate states, reserving to itself the right to
determine in the constitution the powers of the supreme court.
ART. 19. No person can be judged in the states and territories of the
Union, except by laws in force, and by tribunals established prior to the
act for which he is tried. Consequently all judgments by special commissions
and all retroactive laws are forever prohibited.
nzdivzidzcal Government of the States.
ART. 20. The government of each state shall be divided as to the exercise
of its powers into a legislative, executive and judicial department;
and two or more of these powers can never be entrusted to the same person
or corporation, nor can the legislative power be confided to a single
ART. 21. The legislative power of each state shall be entrusted to a
Gammel, Hans Peter Mareus Neilsen. The Laws of Texas, 1822-1897 Volume 1. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth5872/. Accessed March 15, 2014.