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 Collection: The Mexican Revolution on the Border: Primary Sources from El Paso
[4.7 Inch Gun M1906]
The postcard captions reads: "Firing 4.7” Gun. W. H. Horne Co. El Paso, Tex." The 4.7 inch Field Gun M1906 was designed and issued by the US Army Ordnance Department in 1906. There is no accompanying information to positively identify the troops in the postcard or the exact location of this event. The postcard is addressed to J.R. Teague, Framingham Massachusetts, 114 Hollis Av. The postcard is postmarked El Paso, Texas, February 13, 1918, 2 PM. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187724/
[5th Cavalry M Company]
Photograph of fancy riding by the U.S. Cavalry. One of the men, who has just completed the jump on an obstacle course, is carrying the banner which designates the 5th Cavalry M Company. In the distant background are the Franklin Mountains. Left of center is Sugarloaf Peak. The Cavalry competition is being held in front of the officer’s quarters in the new Fort Bliss on Lanoria Mesa. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187729/
[8th Cavalry]
Photograph of the 8th Cavalry playing mounted tug-of-war. Two teams comprised of men and horses have been formed and are set to battle each other in a tug-of-war competition. The postcard was not mailed and has no postmark. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187706/
[Ambulance Corps]
Photograph of Ambulance Corps #2 and Field Hospital Corps #2 in Pennsylvania. This postcard is addressed to Miss India McKenzie, 5922 – 457h Avenue SE, (unknown) City. The postcard is postmarked out of Portland, Oregon, 12 July 1917. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187732/
Apuntes sobre el petroleo mexicano
This work, presented to the 26th Mexican Federal Congress, focuses on the Mexican oil industry. It details its origins, development, and capital investments. It also notes its production and profitability to the nation. It calls for legislation and nationalization. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149936/
[Army Airplane]
Postcard of a U.S. Army airplane has the markings 48 written across its fuselage. The airplane is a Spad styled two-seater model type biplane. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187728/
[Army Ambulances]
Photograph of a U.S. Army Ambulance in Mexico. The driver of the first ambulance is looking directly at the photographer while the driver of the second ambulance appears to be taking a nap. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187739/
[Army Caterpillar Tractor]
Photograph of an army caterpillar tractor pulling heavy artillery through mud. The flatbed wagon has become stuck in the mud. Marines are attempting to get the wagon out of the mud with the assistance of the tractor. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187722/
[Army Field Ambulance]
Photograph of an ambulance transporting wounded soldiers from a Mexican battlefield. The field ambulance is carrying four men. Two of the soldiers are laying down on gurneys, while the other two soldiers are sitting upright. One of the soldiers is wearing an arm sling. The words "Maximum 8 Patients" are displayed on the side of the vehicle. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187743/
[Army Field Communications Equipment]
Photograph of field wireless used by U.S. Troops. Two soldiers are turning a portable, hand cranked power generator. A wire goes from the generator to a device located on the ground. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187721/
[Army Truck Train Transporting Troops]
Photograph of an army truck train transporting troops. The caravan is traveling through city neighborhoods. Army mule supply wagons can also be seen traveling along the same street. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187712/
[Army Wagon Train]
Photograph of an army wagon train crossing the Mexican desert. There are three United States Army supply wagons visible. The supply wagons are being pulled by teams of mules and are guarded by U.S. Soldiers. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187701/
[Artillery on the March]
Photograph of U.S. Army Troops riding horses through a very shallow river. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187710/
[Artillery Unit Crossing a River]
Postcard of an army artillery unit crossing a river. It is unclear if these troops are American or Mexican Federal troops. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187709/
El ataque a Ciudad Juarez y los acontecimientos del 14 al 18 de Junio
This piece provides a firsthand account of the attack on Ciudad Juarez by Villistas and related events, including the American incursion. It also provides information regarding the effects of the battle on El Paso, Texas and includes named civilian casualties. The official American response is also noted. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149938/
El ataque a Ciudad Juárez y los acontecimientos del 14 al 18 de junio. English.
This piece was written to provide a firsthand account regarding the attack on Ciudad Juárez by Villistas and related events. It also provides information regarding the effects of the battle on El Paso, Texas and includes named civilian casualties. The official American response is also noted. The translation was probably done in the 1970s. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149950/
El Atila del sur
Novel with illustrations consisting of line drawings, photographic reproductions, and cartoons. It provides anecdotal information and interviews as well as a fictionalized account of his life. The work focuses not only on Zapata’s military achievements, but also personal information. Includes text of El Plan de Ayala, Zapata's manifesto on land reform. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149937/
Battery A on the Mexican Border
This book is an account of Battery A of the Rhode Island National Guard and its activation on June 24, 1916, its travel to the U.S.-Mexico border, its activities until it was mustered out on November 2, 1916. They were stationed at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, and also referred to their site as Camp Pershing. Includes a narrative description of their trip by train, their camp and training activities on the border. Also includes many reproductions of photographs of the troops and sites, cartoons, and a list of personnel. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth188054/
[Bayonet Drill]
Photograph of a bayonet drill. The army soldiers are practicing close quarters combat or hand to hand combat in preparation for their bayonet drilling exercises. To the left, bayonet practice dummies wait to test the soldier’s marksmanship. The rifles in this image are M1903 Springfield rifles. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187737/
[Breaking Outlaws on the Border #1]
Photograph of soldiers breaking a horse on the border. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187716/
[Breaking Outlaws on the Border #2]
Photograph of soldiers breaking a horse on the border. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187745/
[Camp Cotton]
Aerial view of Camp Cotton, El Paso, Texas. This photograph was taken south to north with the Franklin Mountains in the background. A soldier riding an Indian Motorcycle is visible in the center of the photograph. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187733/
[Camp Cotton, El Paso, Texas]
Aerial view of Camp Cotton, El Paso, Texas. In the lower center of the photograph, a soldier is visible riding an Indian Motorcycle. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187747/
[Camp Scene During a Desert Wind and Sand Storm]
Photograph of a camp during a desert wind and sand storm. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187749/
[Camp Scene on the Mexican Border]
Postcard of a U. S. military camp on the U.S. - Mexican border. Two rows of tents are in the forefront; a row of cabins is visible on the right. A variety of miscellaneous items, including wooden boards, fire wood, buckets, barrels and trash cans, are strewn on the ground in between the rows of tents. Soldiers are inside the open-sided tents completing chores. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149835/
[Camp Stewart]
Photograph of Camp Stuart, which was located on the Mexican Border. In the background are the eastern slopes of the Franklin Mountains. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187738/
Causas de la revolución en México : y como efectuar la paz
This short treatise, written in Havana in 1913, espouses the land reform goals and ideals of Emiliano Zapata and the Zapatistas while condemning the regimes of Carranza and Huerta,. It proposes an idealized agrarian society with land held in common and a system of "Escuelas Granjas" or rural schools. He deplores the evils of clericalism, plutocracy, and militarism. The three headings in the document are "Manifiesto al Pueblo Mexicano," "Bases Generales," and "Pensamiento de la Revolución: Como educar al Pueblo para la Nueva Reforma." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth188055/
[Cavalry Drilling Exercise #1]
Photograph of the drilling cavalry on the Mexican Border. The second cavalryman from the right has his service revolver pointed in the air. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187744/
[Cavalry Drilling Exercise #2]
Photograph of the drilling cavalry on the Mexican Border. The second cavalryman from the right has his service revolver pointed in the air. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187726/
[Cavalry Drilling Exercise #3]
Photograph of the drilling cavalry on the Mexican Border. The second cavalryman from the right has his service revolver pointed in the air. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187725/
[China Town, Colonia Dublan, Mexico]
Postcard of U.S. soldiers from the Punitive Expedition exploring China Town in Colonia Dublan, a Mormon colony in Mexico. General John J. Pershing established his headquarters at Colinia Dublan for the duration of the expedition. Groups of soldiers converse with one another as they stop at individual tents and huts. In the far distance, a wagon is traveling away from the town. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149842/
El conflicto personal de la revolución mexicana
Provides an account of the personal conflict felt by the author regarding the Mexican Revolution and the ensuing reign of Venustiano Carranza. The pamphlet calls for an end to caudillos; however, it is sympathetic to Villa. Although written during Chocano’s travels to New Orleans, it was published in El Paso, Texas. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149939/
[Damaged Building in Juarez, Mexico]
Postcard of a destroyed building in Juarez, Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. Bullet holes cover the exterior of the building. All of the windows have been destroyed, the roof no longer exists, and heavy smoke damage from a fire is evident. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149839/
Los de Abajo: Novela (cuadros y escenas de la revolución mexicana)
First book edition of the most famous novel of the Mexican Revolution. It appeared first a serial within a local newspaper, El Paso del Norte, but later was issued as a single work. It was published in El Paso where the author resided in exile. Subsequent editions are quite different from this first version. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149945/
[Entrenching on the Mexican Border]
Photograph of entrenching on the Mexican Border. These infantry soldiers are digging a trench line. The soldiers are taking their turns digging out this trench. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187714/
Estudio sobre la cuestión agraria : proyecto de ley
This government-produced work discusses land reform and tenure in Mexico. Completed on December 15th, 1914, the second part of this pamphlet outlines Rouaix and Novelo’s agrarian recommendations to the “First chief of the Constitutional Army, Charged with the Executive of the Nation,” Venustiano Carranza. Most significant is the call for a return to the ejido system for communal use of lands by villages in an effort to raise national productivity through effective land usage. Includes: Prontuario de las materias que comprende el proyecto de la nueva ley agraria (p. [25]-39). texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149942/
[Executed Man]
Postcard of a deceased man. The caption on the postcard indicates that the individual was executed. He appears to have been shot; a pool of blood runs down the sidewalk. Papers are strewn about the body. The feet of onlookers are seen on a doorstep at the top of the postcard. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149838/
[Field Ambulance]
Photograph of U.S. Ambulance picking up wounded soldiers on a battlefield. Three unidentified soldiers are placing a wounded soldier onto the field gurney also known as a stretcher or litter. This particular field ambulance was specially modified with supporting hooks so that it could transport up to four loaded field gurneys. The unidentified man in the dark suit and wearing the derby hat is most likely a newsman. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187735/
First Aereo Squadron, Signal Corps, war diary : period from March 12 to April 23, 1916.
Photocopy of typescript describing activities and participants in the 1st Aereo Squadron of the Signal Corps during the Punitive Expedition against Pancho Villa from March 12 to April 23, 1916. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth188057/
[First Cavalry Drilling]
Photograph of U.S. cavalry drilling. The group of soldiers is part of the United States First Cavalry Army Division. The 8th man in the formation is holding the Unit’s flag. The flag in this image contains the number 1 on the top part of the flag and the letter E on the lower part of the flag which would make this group of men part of Company E. This postcard is post marked September 11, 1918, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and was mailed to J.R. Teague of Framingham, Massachusetts, 114 Hollis Avenue. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187720/
[First Regiment of Artillery, Company E]
Aerial photograph of an artillery camp. The two crossed cannons signify that the flags belong to an artillery unit. There is a river in the background with a few people gathered at the river’s edge. There is also an unidentified settlement on the other side of this river. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187748/
[Guarding the Bodies of U.S. Soldiers Killed at Columbus, New Mexico]
Postcard of a U.S. soldier guarding the tent where the caskets of fallen soldiers are held in Columbus, New Mexico. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149837/
[Guarding the Customs House, El Paso, Texas]
Postcard of a group of soldiers keeping watch at the customs house in El Paso, Texas. The customs house was located on the U.S. side of the International Bridge, the gateway to and from Mexico. The majority of the soldiers are sitting down with only a few standing. Two soldiers have their rifles slung over their shoulders. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149836/
Heroica defensa de Ciudad Juárez : la verdad de los hechos, caracter y valor del soldado mexicano; invasión de tropas americanas y su pronta evacuación
This work provides an account of what the author terms the “heroic defense” of Ciudad Juarez against Pancho Villa’s forces. It also includes correspondence by Villa to the military garrison urging their surrender. Notably, it describes American involvement (and brief incursion into Mexico) and the Mexican embassy’s response to it in El Paso, where the work was published. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149833/
[In the Trenches]
Photograph of trenches. Soldiers are wearing gloves and a lone standing soldier, with the clipboard, is wearing an Army issued trench coat. A solider with binoculars is judging the accuracy of the group’s aim. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187719/
[Infantry in Action #1]
Photograph of an infantry in Action. The soldiers are firing M1903s. The M1903 rifle was a bolt-action service rifle which normally used a 5 shot bullet clip. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187740/
[Infantry in Action #2]
Photograph of an infantry in Action. The soldiers are firing M1903s. The M1903 rifle was a bolt-action service rifle which normally used a 5 shot bullet clip. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187746/
[Infantry in Action #3]
Photograph of an infantry in Action. The soldiers are firing M1903s. The M1903 rifle was a bolt-action service rifle which normally used a 5 shot bullet clip. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187741/
[Infantry Troops]
Photographs of soldiers marching through sand. Two dogs, in flanking positions, are following the troops. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187731/
Informe
This governmental report details the state of the union address by Chihuahuan State Governer Abraham González, who held power from 1910-1913. It enumerates the use of taxes, specifically their use in funding schools and telegraph and telephone lines. It also contains a response by the leader of the state legislature. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149944/
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