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 Collection: The Mexican Revolution on the Border: Primary Sources from El Paso
[China Town, Colonia Dublan, Mexico]
Postcard of U.S. soldiers from the Punitive Expedition exploring China Town in Colonia Dublan, a Mormon colony in Mexico. General John J. Pershing established his headquarters at Colinia Dublan for the duration of the expedition. Groups of soldiers converse with one another as they stop at individual tents and huts. In the far distance, a wagon is traveling away from the town. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149842/
El conflicto personal de la revolución mexicana
Provides an account of the personal conflict felt by the author regarding the Mexican Revolution and the ensuing reign of Venustiano Carranza. The pamphlet calls for an end to caudillos; however, it is sympathetic to Villa. Although written during Chocano’s travels to New Orleans, it was published in El Paso, Texas. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149939/
[Damaged Building in Juarez, Mexico]
Postcard of a destroyed building in Juarez, Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. Bullet holes cover the exterior of the building. All of the windows have been destroyed, the roof no longer exists, and heavy smoke damage from a fire is evident. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149839/
Los de Abajo: Novela (cuadros y escenas de la revolución mexicana)
First book edition of the most famous novel of the Mexican Revolution. It appeared first a serial within a local newspaper, El Paso del Norte, but later was issued as a single work. It was published in El Paso where the author resided in exile. Subsequent editions are quite different from this first version. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149945/
[Entrenching on the Mexican Border]
Photograph of entrenching on the Mexican Border. These infantry soldiers are digging a trench line. The soldiers are taking their turns digging out this trench. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187714/
Estudio sobre la cuestión agraria : proyecto de ley
This government-produced work discusses land reform and tenure in Mexico. Completed on December 15th, 1914, the second part of this pamphlet outlines Rouaix and Novelo’s agrarian recommendations to the “First chief of the Constitutional Army, Charged with the Executive of the Nation,” Venustiano Carranza. Most significant is the call for a return to the ejido system for communal use of lands by villages in an effort to raise national productivity through effective land usage. Includes: Prontuario de las materias que comprende el proyecto de la nueva ley agraria (p. [25]-39). texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149942/
[Executed Man]
Postcard of a deceased man. The caption on the postcard indicates that the individual was executed. He appears to have been shot; a pool of blood runs down the sidewalk. Papers are strewn about the body. The feet of onlookers are seen on a doorstep at the top of the postcard. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149838/
[Field Ambulance]
Photograph of U.S. Ambulance picking up wounded soldiers on a battlefield. Three unidentified soldiers are placing a wounded soldier onto the field gurney also known as a stretcher or litter. This particular field ambulance was specially modified with supporting hooks so that it could transport up to four loaded field gurneys. The unidentified man in the dark suit and wearing the derby hat is most likely a newsman. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187735/
First Aereo Squadron, Signal Corps, war diary : period from March 12 to April 23, 1916.
Photocopy of typescript describing activities and participants in the 1st Aereo Squadron of the Signal Corps during the Punitive Expedition against Pancho Villa from March 12 to April 23, 1916. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth188057/
[First Cavalry Drilling]
Photograph of U.S. cavalry drilling. The group of soldiers is part of the United States First Cavalry Army Division. The 8th man in the formation is holding the Unit’s flag. The flag in this image contains the number 1 on the top part of the flag and the letter E on the lower part of the flag which would make this group of men part of Company E. This postcard is post marked September 11, 1918, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and was mailed to J.R. Teague of Framingham, Massachusetts, 114 Hollis Avenue. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187720/
[First Regiment of Artillery, Company E]
Aerial photograph of an artillery camp. The two crossed cannons signify that the flags belong to an artillery unit. There is a river in the background with a few people gathered at the river’s edge. There is also an unidentified settlement on the other side of this river. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187748/
[Guarding the Bodies of U.S. Soldiers Killed at Columbus, New Mexico]
Postcard of a U.S. soldier guarding the tent where the caskets of fallen soldiers are held in Columbus, New Mexico. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149837/
[Guarding the Customs House, El Paso, Texas]
Postcard of a group of soldiers keeping watch at the customs house in El Paso, Texas. The customs house was located on the U.S. side of the International Bridge, the gateway to and from Mexico. The majority of the soldiers are sitting down with only a few standing. Two soldiers have their rifles slung over their shoulders. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149836/
Heroica defensa de Ciudad Juárez : la verdad de los hechos, caracter y valor del soldado mexicano; invasión de tropas americanas y su pronta evacuación
This work provides an account of what the author terms the “heroic defense” of Ciudad Juarez against Pancho Villa’s forces. It also includes correspondence by Villa to the military garrison urging their surrender. Notably, it describes American involvement (and brief incursion into Mexico) and the Mexican embassy’s response to it in El Paso, where the work was published. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149833/
[In the Trenches]
Photograph of trenches. Soldiers are wearing gloves and a lone standing soldier, with the clipboard, is wearing an Army issued trench coat. A solider with binoculars is judging the accuracy of the group’s aim. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187719/
[Infantry in Action #1]
Photograph of an infantry in Action. The soldiers are firing M1903s. The M1903 rifle was a bolt-action service rifle which normally used a 5 shot bullet clip. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187740/
[Infantry in Action #2]
Photograph of an infantry in Action. The soldiers are firing M1903s. The M1903 rifle was a bolt-action service rifle which normally used a 5 shot bullet clip. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187746/
[Infantry in Action #3]
Photograph of an infantry in Action. The soldiers are firing M1903s. The M1903 rifle was a bolt-action service rifle which normally used a 5 shot bullet clip. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187741/
[Infantry Troops]
Photographs of soldiers marching through sand. Two dogs, in flanking positions, are following the troops. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187731/
Informe
This governmental report details the state of the union address by Chihuahuan State Governer Abraham González, who held power from 1910-1913. It enumerates the use of taxes, specifically their use in funding schools and telegraph and telephone lines. It also contains a response by the leader of the state legislature. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149944/
[Jumping Contest]
Postcard of several U.S. Army cavalry members riding dark-colored horses next to a low, wooden fence; several of the horses are jumping over the fence. The caption in the lower-left corner says "Jumping Contest." The postcard was sent from El Paso, Texas and is addressed to "Miss G. M. Horne" in Portland, Maine. Text on the back of the postcard reads: "Dear Gertrude:- Big military tournament here next week - 5000 soldiers; and commencing Oct. 15, a full month of maneuvers by the Division of the Army on the border. All[...] here, Walter." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187715/
Madero y sus detractores, por varios maderistas.
Book containing short essays (sometimes anonymous) on the theme of revolutionary politics, many works relating to Francisco Madero, the Mexican president who was assassinated in 1913. Notably, it was published in El Paso, Texas by supporters in exile. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149946/
Manifiesto del C. Gral Francisco Villa a la nación y documentos que justifican el desconocimiento del C. Venustiano Carranza como primer jefe de la revolución.
Book with copies of communications between generals in the north of Mexico and the Carranza government. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149947/
[Mechanized Cavalry]
Photograph of a military tractor towing at least three supply wagons. Two of the supply wagons are loaded with pontoon boats. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187707/
Mexico. El triunfo de la revolucion o el grito de un pueblo.
This work provides a personal account regarding the author’s struggle against the Diaz regime. It includes as an introduction a letter to Francisco I. Madero, whom the author terms the caudillo of the Mexican Revolution. Includes text of resignations of Porfirio Díaz and Francisco Madero. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149948/
[Military Camp in Mexico]
Postcard of a military camp in Mexico. Several adobe structures, which appear to homes, can be seen in the background. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187750/
[Military Observation Balloon]
Postcard of a military observation balloon. A group of soldiers and some children surround the balloon and look on as a few individuals secure the balloon to the ground. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149834/
[Mountain Howitzer in Action]
Postcard of a Mountain Howitzer in action. This unidentified artillery team is preparing to fire the Howitzer. The man standing closest to the Howitzer is a non-commissioned officer. The soldiers ranking of Sergeant is noted by the three chevrons on the right upper arm sleeve of his uniform. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187713/
[Mountain Scenery on the Border]
Postcard of mountain scenery on the border. Postcard of an unidentified group of cavalry soldiers at the base of the Franklin Mountains. Some of the horses appear to be malnourished because their ribs are showing. Perhaps the horses were left to graze in this field. On the right hand side of this postcard three soldiers are looking down towards the ground and appear to be searching for something. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187711/
[Muster Call]
Postcard of U.S. Soldiers at drill. The Franklin Mountains are in the background. The post card is addressed to J.R. Teague of Framingham, Massachusetts and postmarked out of San Antonio, Texas, 22 June 1918. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187742/
[Obstacle Course Competition]
Photograph of soldiers going into action. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187734/
[Orozco's Sharp Shooters, Juarez, Mexico]
Postcard of a group of insurrecto soldiers in the desert outskirts of Juarez, Mexico, posing for a photograph with their rifles. The caption on the postcard identifies the men as sharp shooters in Orozco's ranks, referring to the revolutionary leader Pascual Orozco. The three men in the first row are not armed. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149841/
El problema agrario en México : la acción del gobierno y la iniciativa individual
Esquivel Obregón wrote this pamphlet as a means of critiquing the Diaz regime’s collusion with major landholders. Esquivel Obregón was considered a progressive and modern in his approach to government. He discusses how landholders were always able to co-opt the gains of different revolutions by swinging laws back into their favor after a return to normalcy. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149940/
El problema de la tierra
This is a thesis submitted as the professional examination for a law degree at the Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM). López examines the effects of the Mexican progressive land movement in general, agrarian issues, and problems resulting from the revolution's land concerns, and ends with offered solutions to the “problem of the earth.” He completed the exam on May 4th, 1912. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149941/
[Quarantined for Measles]
Photograph of individuals quarantined for measles. Postcard addressed to J. R. Teague in Framingham, Massachusetts address 114 Hollis Street. The post marked stamp on the back side reads: "San Antonio, Texas, June 1918, 8:30 pm." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187700/
The revolution in Mexico.
Printed copy of a speech given by William H. Burges, who was a prominent El Paso lawyer and businessman, in the presence of both Francisco Madero and General Juan Navarro. The speaker urges the audience to support the establishment of Madero’s government in Mexico. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149949/
[Rhode Island Artillery]
Photograph of Rhode Island artillery at El Paso, Texas. The author of the postcard identified this group of men and equipment as being part of the Rhode Island Artillery group. The Franklin Mountains are in the background; this is part of Fort Bliss is on the Lanoria Mesa. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187730/
[Scene of Disorder in Barracks after the Battle of Juarez, Mexico]
Postcard of a group of men and women observing the disarray of personal belongings within a courtyard after the Battle of Juarez. A variety of items, including clothing, blankets, hats, and crates are gathered into one large pile. Horses are in the background, behind the group. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149840/
[Siege Artillery on the Mexican Border]
Photograph of a caterpillar tractor pulling heavy siege artillery on the Mexican border. According to the caption, this group of U.S. Marines is trying move a piece of siege artillery that has become stuck in the mud. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187718/
[Soldiers Hiking]
Photograph of soldiers hiking. A horse drawn wagon and a car have moved to the side of the road to give way to the soldiers. At a distance, there is a railroad car next to the small wooden building. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187736/
[Supply Wagons]
Photograph of mountain scenery along the line of the hike. Visible among the soldiers' supplies are extra wagon wheels wagon axles. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187708/
[Target Range]
Postcard of a U.S. Army target range. These soldiers are working the back end of this target range. This postcard is postmarked 19 April 1918, Fort Bliss, Texas. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187723/
[Transporting a Wounded Soldier]
Postcard depicting a group of U.S. soldiers with a flatbed truck. Four solders on the left are moving a soldier lying on a stretcher; two other solders are kneeling in the bed of the truck, which is covered with straw. On the right, two other solders are talking and behind them, and harnessed horses and trees are visible in the background. The butt end of a rifle is visible in a holder next to the driver's side of the truck. The postcard caption at the bottom reads: "Picking up wounded soldiers after the Battle of San Geronimo, Mex. W.H. Horne Co., El Paso, Tex." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187717/
[U.S. Army Artillery Cannon]
Postcard depicting a 4 inch gun ready to fire. Several of the soldiers can be seen looking directly at the camera. At a distance and to the left another artillery team can be seen. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187703/
[U.S. Army Troops Hiking]
Photograph of a soldiers walking back to camp after a hike. The post card is addressed to J. R. Teague in Framingham, Massachusetts address 114 Hollis Street. The post marked stamp on the back reads: "San Antonio, Texas, July 27 1918, 4 pm." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187704/
[U.S. Cavalry Drill]
Postcard of an unidentified U.S. Army cavalry unit participating in horsemanship exercises. Several lines of cavalry members in uniform are standing atop dark-colored horses and riding over short wooden triangular frames. A caption at the bottom of the image says "U.S. Cavalry Drill." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187702/
[U.S. Soldiers Resting]
Photograph of soldiers resting along the line of march. The photograph was taken in the area of modern day central El Paso, Texas. There are at least two hundred rifles visible in the photograph; one soldier guards all of the rifles. Many soldiers have taken refuge under the shaded eves of the homes. Along the sidewalk, at a distance, a young girl wearing a while dress is holding a parasol and a child, also in white, is standing next to her. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187705/
[Uncle Sam's Guests at Fort Bliss, Texas]
Postcard of a family of refugees from the Mexican Revolution held at Fort Bliss, Texas. Two U.S. soldiers and a small group of men and women are behind the children and father. Tents are visible in the upper right hand corner of the postcard. A note on the back of the postcard states that the children strolled into the Perma Division for a visit and food. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth149843/
[Wounded Cavalry Horses]
The caption on the postcard reads: Wounded Cavalry Horses. These two unidentified soldiers are tending to the three wounded horses in this postcard image. All three horses have deep tissue lacerations to their front legs and chest areas that were cause by barbed wire fencing. Apparently the horses were caught up in a stampede of horses. As a result of the stampede, several of the stampeding horses were caught up in the barbed wire fencing. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187751/
[Wounded Soldier]
The postcard caption partially reads: Survivor of the Battle of Carrizal. It seems that the African American sergeant is the recent survivor of the Battle of Carrizal (Metz, Leon, Fort Bliss, page 83). The African American sergeant has three chevrons on his right uniform sleeve and appears to be one of the highest ranking men among this group of men. He is also wearing driver's goggles on his hat. There is no accompanying information given about his identity. The postcard was post marked out of El Paso, Texas, February circa 1915 – 1920 and is addressed to: Mrs. C H Breslin, Union Hotel, Altoona, Pennsylvania. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth187727/