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Boyce Ditto Public Library
- [An Unknown Boarding House]
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60895/
- [First National Bank]
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60921/
- Carlisle House, Mineral Wells, Texas
The Carlisle House was owned and managed by Mrs. A[lexander] E[mmett] Carlisle, after the death of her husband in 1911. It was one of the largest hotels of its day, boasting sixty rooms. It was destroyed in a fire on July 4, 1914. The Abilene "Reporter" of July 5, 1914 reports that fire began its course at the Tourist Hotel (located, at the time, at 315 NW 4th street). It spread to the New Hazel Hotel (at 305 NW 4th Street), took in the Harrel House, (at 301 NW 4th street), the Lake Charles, Louisiana (511 NW 2nd Street), and the Burk House, 601 NW 3rd Avenue, as well as seven houses that were not hotels. The fire was so thorough that in 1921, the area was still devoid of buildings.
It was on this site that Mordecai Ham (he who converted Billy Graham) put up a tent for a revival on March 23, 1927. He accepted the position of pastor at the First Baptist Church in Oklahoma City on June 19, 1927. He remained in that position until June 16, 1929, when he returned to the revival circuit.
The Carlisle House was located in the same block as the the Mineral Wells Clinic, which in was known to be in existence in 1928. It later became the Nazareth Hospital (q.v.). texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16179/
- Hotel Damron, Mineral Wells, Texas
This picture shows a post-card view of the Damron Hotel in Mineral Wells, Texas. It was built in 1906 as The Colonial Hotel by rancher J.T. Holt for his second wife, who would not live in the country. The hotel was traded around 1917 to Agnew and Bessie Damron in exchange for a ranch. The hotel burned in 1978. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16184/
- The Carlisle House, Mineral Wells Texas
The Carlisle House was once located at 316 NW 3rd Avenue, and NW 4th Street. It filled a quarter of the block, and, with sixty rooms, was one of the largest hotels in Mineral wells. It owned and managed by Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Emmett Carlisle. Mr. Carlisle died in 1911, but his widow continued to manage the hotel.
The hotel met its doom in a fire that consumed six hotels and seven dwellings during its rampage. The conflagration was so thorough that the location was still empty in 1921. The Nazareth Hospital as eventually built in this location.
The architecture is possibly best described as an eclectic mix of Prairie and Queen Anne Styles, the later style perhaps reflecting additions to the original building.
[For further details, please see the other picture, also labeled "Carlisle House, Mineral Wells, Texas."] texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60890/
- The Convention Hall and Its Surroundings
This picture shows the quondam Convention Hall in it glory days after its erection in 1925, and before its demolition in 1976. A house in the (possibly)the Colonial Revival style is visible. Another large house on a hill appears to be in the Neoclassical style. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60953/
- [The Zappe Home -- NW 4th Avenue]
Trees in full foliage (in July of 1975) obscure the Zappe House on NW 4th Avenue. This Tudor-style home with a native sandstone porch was built in 1929 by Mr. R.S. (Bob) Dalton, a pioneer rancher and developer of the Dalton oilfield in north Palo Pinto County. Dr. H. Arthur Zappe, a local dentist, member of the Texas State Board of Dental Examiners, and former mayor of Mineral Wells, bought the house in 1947. The house is currently  owned by an oculist, Dr. Adams.
There are arched entrances throughout the house, leaded and stained-glass windows, French doors, stippled stucco walls and doors that are inlaid with mahogany panels. In addition to fireplaces, the house obtains heat from gas-fired steam radiators. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16153/
- [The Yeager Block]
This picture shows a white sandstone building on NE 1st Avenue named "Yeager Block." The original home of (what was often called) the Lion Drugstore, it once sported a metal statue of a lion mounted on the roof, which gave rise to the legend that the business was called "The Lion Drug." (Current living descendants of Dr. Yeager do not ever remember the drugstore being referred to by than name. However, a casual reference to it in 1912 refers to the store as "The Lion Drug.") It housed the Baker Medical Supply at the time of the photograph. A retail store in the left of the photograph is named "The Rural Route."
A handwritten date on the back of the photograph gives the year as "1993." The coffee shop "H2J0" is located [in 2007] where "The Rural Route" used to be. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth20433/
- [Penitentiary Hollow]
Three ladies (bearing bouquets), a man and a boy perch among the angular boulders of Penitentiary Hollow on the east side of Lake Mineral Wells. Their identities are unknown. This picture is probably a souvenir photograph, taken at some time during the late 1910's or early 1920's.
A local story has it that the area gets its name from the "Fact" that cattle thieves were said to be accustomed to cache their booty here, in preparation to driving it on farther for sale. Therefore, anybody detected in this place (who could no give a good account of himself) was likely to find lodging in the nearest penitentiary. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39231/
- [The Middle Panel of the Oldest Known Panorama of Mineral Wells]
Shown here is the middle photograph of three that are arranged on pages 40 and 41 of A. F. Weaver's book, "TIME WAS In Mineral Wells", to create the "Earliest known panoramic view of Mineral Wells around 1882." It was taken from East Mountain looking to the southwest.
The photograph includes the center of today's downtown Mineral Wells. A large white two-story building is shown at the left center of the picture on West Hubbard Street, at the site of the (later) Southern Hotel. The building at the far left edge of the picture occupies on the site of the current Mineral Wells Fire and Police Departments in the 200 block of South Oak Avenue.
The center of Mineral Wells' Business District is now  the intersection of Oak Avenue (US 281) and Hubbard Street (US Highway 180). texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth38089/
- Aerial View of Camp Wolters
The only information about this photograph appears to be the written legends on it:
[At its top] MW-4 AERIAL VIEW OF CAMP WOLTERS, TEXAS
[At its bottom] PHOTO BY AERIAL PHOTO SERVICE KALAMAZOO--DALLAS 1B-H586
Camp Wolters was the predecessor of Fort Wolters in Mineral Wells. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39205/
- Jack Amlung
The band in this photograph is identified as "Jack Amlung." It consists of nine players, including its leader. The instruments visible are: A sousaphone; two (?)pianos; a violin; an alto saxophone; a clarinet, a guitar, a bass viol; percussion.
Further information about this band is, sadly, lacking. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39164/
- Crazy Radio Theatre
According to A. F. Weaver, in his book "Time was in Mineral Wells", the Crazy Radio Theatre broadcast from the lobby of the Crazy Hotel in Mineral Wells over the Texas Quality Network. The show's origin is said to be the selling of "Crazy Water Crystals."
Identified are Hal Collins (Manager of the Crazy Hotel), Paul, Ludy, Dick, Jake, Slim. [No last names are given.]
Please note the early 12-string steel guitar held by Paul. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth24991/
- [Two men dressed as Bonnie and Clyde]
Two men, posing as the notorious gangsters of the 'thirties (Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow), standing beside a (1932 Ford?), are shown in front of Woods Camera Shop. Woods Camera Shop advertises (on a faded sign in front of the store) "Eastman Dealer - Enlarging Framing Finishing - Kodaks Loaned Free" The occasion of this disguise remains, as yet, unknown. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16261/
- [The Demolition of the Convention Hall, 2 of 5: From a Block Away]
This photograph was taken at an early stage of the demolition of the Mineral Wells Convention Hall on N. Oak Avenue. Built in 1925 to accommodate the West Texas Chamber of Commerce Convention, it was constructed on the rock foundation of the Hexagon Hotel's electric power plant.
The Hexagon Hotel, Mineral Wells' first electrically-lighted hotel, stood on the vacant corner lot in the foreground of this picture. It was torn down in 1959.
When the Convention Hall was torn down in 1975, a member of the demolition crew said the new owner of the former London Bridge (to be re-erected at Havasu City in Arizona)was interested in acquiring the rocks to build the foundation for a fort to be constructed at the same site.
(One local story credits that interest in the foundation stones as the reason for the demolition of the Convention Hall.) texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29413/
- [402 SW 5th Street]
A Victorian home (in Queen Anne style) is shown here at 402 SW 5th Street. Note the one-story tower, the multiple hip roofs and wraparound porch. The columns on the porch suggest a Free Classic sub-type, but other elements of the sub-type appear to be missing. Cut-away bays (common in Queen Anne architecture) are also missing, suggesting that this house had been remodeled sometime in the past. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16167/
- [The Demolition of the Convention Hall, 4 of 5]
A holograph legend on the back of this picture states: "Tearing down Convention Hall 1976."
The photograph illustrates the demolition of the building in full swing. Only the skeleton of the roof remains, and the walls are in ruins.
This picture appears in Weaver's "TIME WAS in Mineral Wells" on page 186. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39234/
- [The Demolition of the Convention Hall: Interior, 3 of 5]
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60958/
- [The Convention Hall, Built in 1925]
This photograph shows the Convention Hall, which was built in 1925 to accommodate the 1925 West Texas Chamber of Commerce Convention. The lack of signage on the front of the building--along with copious bunting--suggests that the photograph was taken at its dedication. The picture is featured in "Time There Once was", page 164. The Convention Hall was demolished in 1976. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39236/
- [The Demolition of the Convention Hall--1 of 5: Front View]
The metal framework of the Mineral Wells Convention Hall is all that it readily visible during its demolition in 1975/1976. Built on the rock foundation of the Hexagon House Electric Plant (for the West Texas Chamber of Commerce Convention in 1925), it served as the site of numerous local functions including High School Graduation Exercises.
The landmark Hexagon Hotel, Mineral Wells' first electrically-lighted hotel, stood on the vacant corner lot in the left foreground of this picture from 1897 to 1959. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29412/
- [The Demolition of the Convention Hall, 5 of 5]
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60959/
- Bank of Mineral Wells
This picture is an undated photograph that appears to have been published in the Mineral Wells Index. It also appears on page 148 of A.F. Weaver's book "TIME WAS In Mineral Wells." The caption reads, "Palo Pinto County Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs and the Junior Rotary Band received pure-bred eggs distributed free by the Bank of Mineral Wells. Note the bank has had an addition to its south side."
The caption on an earlier picture of the bank states, "D. M. Howard and R. B. Preston opened the first bank in the City, The Bank of Mineral Wells, located at 102 SE 1st Avenue."
In a companion picture on p. 148, "TIME WAS ... ", the caption reads,"The Bank of Mineral Wells went broke in 1924. The building was then used by Ball Drug and Massengale's Appliances. The building was torn down to make room for parking in the downtown area."
(The City Directory of 1924 lists the bank's location at 102 SE 1st. Avenue. There is no listing of it in the 1927 City Directory.) texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth20440/
- [Camp Wolters Headquarters; Polio Association]
[The caption page is, unfortunately, partially destroyed] Headqu[......](lacuna)[..]lters
Camp Wolters, Texas--Major General [............](lacuna), Command[..] (lacuna) Infantry Replacement Center at Camp Wolters, pres.(lacuna) for [deletion] $453 to Irl Prerston, treasurer of the Palo Pinto Co(lacuna) Infantile Paralysis Association, as Capt. Harry P. Sheldon, (lacuna) of the Camp Wolters Officers Mess & William P. Cameron, Pa(lacuna) Infantile Paralysis Association chairman, look on. The c(lacuna) the contribution of Camp Wolters officers to the infantile para[.](lacuna) as the result of a [deletion] President's Birthday Ball held (lacuna) at the officers [sic] mess. The sum [deletion] complements $281 raised by citizens of Mineral Wells at the President's Ball in the city.
[signed] Sidney Miller texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39204/
- [A Man, A Woman and a Portrait]
Ruby Shattles (Mrs. Jesse Shattles) presents a portrait of Achilles Corcanges to Mr. Corcanges, founder & owner of radio station KORC in Mineral Wells. Mrs. Shattles owned and operated Pavilion Studios at 412 North Oak. This picture may be found in "Time Was in Mineral Wells" on page 185. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39180/
- Inspiration Point
The label on the photograph reads both "Possum Kingdom Dam" and "Inspiration Point". A. F. and Patsy Weaver are shown enjoying the view from Inspiration Point. A.F. Weaver himself took the photograph, using a tripod and camera timer,in the same vicinity where he had proposed to Patsy Weaver years before this photograph was taken.
In the early part of the twentieth century,the internationally known evangelist, Billy Sunday, visited Mineral Wells. He was told about an outstanding view from a vantage point south of town. On seeing the vista for himself,the Rev. Sunday remarked it was truly an inspirational view. Since that time the viewpoint has been known as "Inspiration Point".
This vista is seven miles south of Mineral Wells off US Highway 281, and approximately 40 miles below the Morris Sheppard Dam at Possum Kingdom Lake. It has been called one of the most beautiful scenic views in Texas.
This picture has possibly been used in the course of the advertising of interesting things to see and do around Mineral Wells, which might explain the label attached to the photograph.
Similarly captivating is a view from "Observation Point" the Dam at Possum Kingdom Lake. The two vistas, some 20 to 30 miles apart,overlook entirely different stretches of the Brazos, each with its own unique but spectacular view. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16255/
- [The Brick Factory]
The abundant clay in and around Palo Pinto County was recognized around the turn of the 20th century as a source of raw material for brick manufacturing. Rejected fine coal from the area's coal mines furnished heat to fire the clay and bake it into brick. This brick factory in far western Parker County, near the Rock Creek coal mine, was a major industry in Mineral Wells. The factory was first opened on January 21 of 1921. The factory is in full operation in this photograph, with train cars on the tracks and bricks stacked along the rail area awaiting shipment.
Area-made bricks were used to build the seawall at Galveston after the disastrous hurricane of 1900, to pave both the highway from Mineral Wells to Ft. Worth as well as many of the streets in in that city, and to pave Congress Avenue in Austin. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth25058/
- Paving Brick Plant
Shown here is a photograph of the Paving Brick Plant. In the lower right-hand corner is the legend: Young Studio Mineral Wells, Tex."
It was established in 1921; electrified in 1925-1926; the company was sold in 1927, re-named "Reliance Brick Company." It is featured in "Time Was in Mineral Wells on page 162.
Electrification was accomplished when the Texas Power and Light Company furnished an abandoned 500 h.p. stream-power plant for the job. It was fed natural gas by means of the Upham Gas Company's line.
In 1927, the plant was the largest of its kind west of the Mississippi River, confining its production exclusively to vitrified shale material.
The manager in 1927 has been identified as A. E. Eaton, who was also instrumental in locating the plant in Mineral Wells. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39179/
- [The Yeager Building]
A stone building named "Yeager Block" on the corner of NE 1st Avenue and NE 1st Street is shown here. (NE 1st is the street shown in the picture. Dr. Yeager lived two blocks east--up that street--of the drugstore). Once home of (what was known to some as)"The Lion Drugstore", it had a metal statue of a lion mounted on its roof. The statue of the lion was donated to a scrap metal drive for World War II, in order to aid the war effort.
At the time of this photograph, (a handwritten note on the back of the photograph gives the date as 1993), it was housing the Baker Medical Supply Company at the time. A retail store in the left of the photograph is named "The Rural Route." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth20428/
- [The Yeager Building]
Shown here is a stone building named "Yeager Block" on NE 1st Avenue. The building originally housed what was called, (by some) "The Lion Drug Store", and once had a metal statue of a lion on its roof. It housed the Baker Medical Supply Company at the time of the photograph. A retail store in the left (south) of the photograph was named "The Rural Route."
A handwritten date on the back is given as 1993.
The coffee shop H2JO was located on the north part of the building in 2006. Mike Chamberlain Photography was located on the north end of the block in 2006. It is now  closed. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth20422/
- The Crazy Theatre
Shown here is a picture of the Crazy Theater, 400 N. Oak Avenue (the present location of Bennett's Office Supply)that was taken between 1907 and 1914. The trolley tracks, which were installed in 1907, are visible on Oak Avenue. The city streets were paved in 1914, some time after this photograph was made.
The building is located on the east side of the north end of the 400 block of Oak Street, and the Crazy drinking Pavilion was located on opposite (west) side of the same block. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29452/
- The Carlsbad of America
Shown here is the battered title page of a pamphlet about Mineral Wells, calling it "The Carlsbad of America." It gives the property valuation (ending in 1905), and the population of the city (also ending in 1905). A colophon at the bottom of the pamphlet remarks "Texas An Empire---A nation within a Nation." The pamphlet reports itself as the work of the Index Printing Company. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60966/
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60969/
- The [Old] City Hall
This picture shows the old Mineral Wells City Hall at 202 N. Oak Avenue. Police, who were on foot, were summoned to the police station by a red light in the dome of the Baker Hotel before the two-way radio came into use. The City Hall was later located at 215 [Weaver's book, "TIME WAS in Mineral Wells", on page 152, says 211] S.W. 1st Avenue with Fire and Police station at 215 [the book says 212] S. Oak--east of the City Hall.
- [Blind Nellie at the Austin Well]
Colonel W. R. Austin came from Kentucky to Palo Pinto County about 1880, and settled on Staggs Prairie. When an infection in his eye responded to mineral water treatment, he established the Austin Well, later operated by his son-in-law, Tom Sims.
Blind Nellie was a fixture of the Austin Well for years. She had an interesting history: A cowboy rode her into town one day, and auctioned her off to the highest bidder, J.H. Coleman, who bid a dollar and a half for her. Then Bob Kyle took Coleman's bargain off his hands, but Colonel Austin was the one who profited most from her when he devised a method that used her to "pump" water from his well.
This unique method of bringing water to the surface was an added attraction at the Austin. Instead of drawing it up by hand or using a power pump, Blind Nellie was trained to walk around in circles, pulling the water up from below. She would pause long enough for the water to empty and, as if on a hidden cue, would go around again as the receptacle was lowered back into the well, repeating her performance accurately each time.
In later years, when she became confused in her ritual, she was allowed to retire. In retirement, however, Blind Nellie selected a place in her pasture, and during the working hours of the day she repeated the ritual of walking her circle in a size corresponding to the one she had walked for so many years at the Austin Well. She died in 1912. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth24964/
- [The Birch McClendon Food Store]
The only information about this picture comes from a legend on the back of it:
Mrs. Vernon Hill
father & n gof [sic]
Mr. Lord. grocery
[illegible] Specialty Shop
[written vertically] DW Griffith
It is featured in "Time was in Mineral Wells" on page 128 as "Birch McClendon Food Store, located at 211 Southeast 1st Street." texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39192/
- [The Cumberland Presbyterian Church]
Shown here is a picture of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. On the back of picture is written "901 N.Oak [.] Sold to Church of Christ [.] Demolished and rebuilt." The streetcar tracks, which ran from 1907 to 1913 are visible on N. Oak in front of the church.
The church takes its name from Cumberland Street, Philadelphia. A sub-sect of Presbyterianism--based on an Arminian interpretation of Calvinism--was begun at the church there. A Cumberland Presbyterian church is advertised as being in Newberry at the present  time.
The picture was taken before North Oak Avenue was paved in 1914. The Church of Christ still  occupies this location on N. Oak Avenue. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29979/
- Dry Goods--W.H.H.Hightower
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60912/
- [915 NW 4th Avenue]
The home at 915 NW 4th Avenue was built by Hugh Coleman in 1906. It was the first elegant home built on NW 4th Avenue, and it was designed as an entertainment and social center. The style of the house has been tentatively identified as Italian Renaissance.
This house was also home to the John Moore family, and to the family of Gerald Talkington.
The photograph of house was taken April 4, 1976. This photograph is to be found on page 183 of "Time Was..." by A. F. Weaver. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16165/
- Two Men at Inspiration Point
Two men are here seen sitting on a bench at Inspiration Point. The photograph is believed to have been taken about the year 1920. The bluffs above the Brazos River are visible in the background. The man at the far left has been identified as Bealer Beard, at one time an owner of a construction company in Mineral wells. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth16226/
- Palo Pinto Advance-Star (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 82, Ed. 1 Thursday, December 25, 1975
A weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that included local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417315/
- Palo Pinto Advance-Star (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 71, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 9, 1975
A weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that included local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417292/
- Palo Pinto Advance-Star (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 9, Ed. 1 Thursday, July 11, 1974
A weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that included local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417293/
- [A Guest Room in the Baker Hotel]
This photograph shows a guest room in the Baker Hotel, when it was operating. Please note the corner sofa, shag carpet, round coffee-table. Please note also the smoking stand at one end of the sofa--an amenity not seen in modern hotel rooms. The decor suggests the late 1950's or the early 1960's. It is said that the door of the room had an apparatus in it that automatically turned off the lights when the key was turned. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth39200/
- [Ellis White Shows Off the Book About Mineral Wells]
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60905/
- Mineral Wells Graphic. (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 2, No. 35, Ed. 1 Friday, January 8, 1897
Weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417291/
- The Methodist-Episcopal Church
No Description texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth60893/
- [A Group of men at Inspiration Point]
A group of businessmen and ranchers are shown at Inspiration Point in the 1920's. From left, they are (unknown); Mr. Henry Penix; Mr. Bowman; Mssrs. Henry and Charlie Fowler. Note the spurs on the boots of the Fowlers, and the cigars in the hands of Mssrs. Penix and Bowman.
Inspiration Point, overlooking the Brazos in Southeast Palo Pinto County about ten miles south of Mineral Wells, commands a vast panoramic view of the rugged river valley stretching for miles below the viewer. It was a noted scenic attraction during the heyday of one of America's most popular health resorts. It is not available to the general public at this time, as it is located on private property. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth24952/
- Palo Pinto Advance-Star (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 103, Ed. 1 Thursday, May 20, 1976
A weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that included local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417297/
- Palo Pinto Advance-Star (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 10, No. 102, Ed. 1 Thursday, May 13, 1976
A weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that included local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417314/
- Palo Pinto County Star (Mineral Wells, Tex.), Vol. 87, No. 28, Ed. 1 Wednesday, July 24, 1963
A weekly newspaper from Mineral Wells, Texas that included local, state, and national news along with advertising. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth417288/