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  Partner: Marshall Public Library
[J. B. Williamson House, Harrison County]
The J. B. Williamson House is located on Hynson Springs Road west of Marshall in Harrison County. The house was built during the 1840s or earlier as a dog-trot log cabin. It was occupied by pioneers, farmers, and sharecroppers before being purchased as part of a parcel by Capt. G. C. Dial, a former army soldier, founder, and patriot of the Texas Republic. Dial sold a large tract to S. D. Rainey, who traded it to Martha and A. Judson Gibbs. In 1867, J. B. Williamson bought the "Dial, Rainey, and Gibbs Place." J. B. Williamson was a lawyer and district judge. During 1872-73, Williamson ordered the renovations which enlarged the cabin and added the Greek Revival architectural elements. His daughter and son-in law, Eunice and W. H. Attebery, acquired the home later and established the largest peach orchards in Texas on the property. In 1962, the D. H. Greggs of Houston bought the home, restored it, and secured the Texas Medallion and a listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The Greggs donated the house to the Harrison County Historical Society in 1982, which continues to preserve the property. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18061/
[Bishop College Classroom Building, Marshall]
This was a temporary classroom building in the early years of Bishop College in Marshall. The college was established as a Baptist institution for African-Americans in 1881. The campus relocated to Dallas in 1961. Bishop closed in 1988. None of the original Marshall campus remains. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18095/
[Bishop College Teachers' Cottage, Marshall]
A bungalow at Bishop College, Marshall, provided housing for instructors in the early years of the school's history. A historic Baptist college for African-Americans, Bishop was established in 1881. In 1961 it was relocated to Dallas. Falling upon hard times, the college closed in 1988. None of the original buildings of the Marshall campus remain. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18094/
[Marshall Chamber of Commerce Building]
The Greater Marshall Chamber of Commerce occupies this Georgian building at 213 W. Austin St. The building is owned by the City of Marshall and was occupied by the Marshall Public Library before its new quarters were completed in 1973. Prior to the library's occupation, the building belonged to the Marshall Women's Clubs. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18060/
[Victorian Cottage, Marshall]
This cottage in Marshall displays the classic Victorian lines found in many of Marshall's homes. It is located at 705 Sanford Street, within the historic "New Town Neighborhood." This area of African-American businesses, offices, schools, churches and residences was established by the 1930's around Wiley College. The construction date and original owner are unknown. One longtime owner with whom the home has become identified was Ruie W. Matthews, an employee of the Texas and Pacific Railroad. He owned the home from c1946 to c1988. His wife was Clementine. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18093/
[Geneva A. Brown, Harrison County Educator]
Mrs. Geneva A. Brown taught for forty-seven years, forty-two of them in Harrison County. She was born in Texas in 1909 into a teaching family. Her collegiate career included Bishop College, the University of Wisconsin, Penn State, North Texas State, and Prairie View. After brief periods at Idabel, Oklahoma and Mt. Pleasant, she began to teach in a one-room school in Harrison County. When the county schools were consolidated, she was teaching at the New Town School in Marshall. Later she transferred to Pemberton High School, and finally finished her career as a director of testing and counselor. Her picture is from a Pemberton High School yearbook, probably from 1950-1953. Although she was a wife and mother, she participated in numerous civic and church activities. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18059/
[Magnolia Hall, Marshall]
Magnolia Hall, at 303 North Columbus Street in Marshall, was the first property in the city to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It has also received the Texas Restoration Award. Known also as The Pierce Home, it was constructed during the 1850's. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18092/
[Geneva A. Brown, Harrison County Educator]
Mrs. Geneva A. Brown, Harrison County educator and civic volunteer, posed in front of the curtained windows of the library director's office at Marshall Public Library. Born about 1909 in Gregg County, Mrs. Brown came from a family of educators. She was schooled at Bishop College, the University of Wisconsin, PennState University, North Texas State University, and Prairie View A & M College. She was married to Mr. F. M. Brown. She taught high school English and Latin in Oklahoma before teaching in the one-room schools of Harrison County. In 1948 she was teaching at New Town School when Marshall ISD acquired it. Later she was at Pemberton Senior High School where she taught social studies before becoming director of testing and counselor, a position she held for 24 years. Upon retirement in 1974, her total teaching career spanned 47 years. She was also active in church and civic organizations in Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18058/
[Greenwood Cemetery, Marshall]
The entrance to old Greenwood Cemetery near East Texas Baptist University in Marshall has a Texas Historical marker. The marker relates that the cemetery "Originated 1840 as private burial ground Van Zandt family." The Van Zandts were a founding family in Harrison County, and Texas patriots. The cemetery later became public and has numerous old graves. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18091/
[Children's Group Begins Bus Trip, Marshall]
A group of unidentified children in Marshall, accompanied by adults, prepares to board a Continental Trailways Bus for an outing. The location is the parking lot at Marshall Public Library. The woman in the foreground is Dorothy Morrison, Director of Marshall Public Library. The scene probably dates from 1973-1984. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18057/
[Victorian House, Marshall]
Marshall has many stately Victorian houses, many of which are still occupied and have been restored, as this one has. This home is located in the 600 block of N. Washington Ave. In the distance the Ginoccho-Cook-Pedison house can be seen. Both structures are located in Marshall's historic train district. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18090/
[Children's Group Begins Bus Trip, Marshall]
A group of unidentified adults and children prepare to board a Contnental Trailways bus for an outing in Marshall. The location of the scene is the parking lot of Marshall Public Library. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18056/
[Ginocchop-Cook-Pedison House, Marshall]
The Ginocchio-Cook-Pedison house is located at 615 N. Washington Ave. in Marshall's Historic District. It has a Texas Historical Medallion and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Charles Ginocchio built the house in 1886 in the Victorian plan with Italianate detailing. He built the Ginocchio Hotel next door in 1896 to serve the passenger traffic on the nearby Texas and Pacific Railway line. Charles' estate sold the house to Behn and Eudora Cook. The Cook heirs sold the house to a Greek immigrant, Anthony Pedison, who with his brother James had bought the hotel in 1924. Anthony Pedison and his wife lived in the house from 1934 until recent times. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18089/
[Hazel B. Howard, Marshall Educator]
Mrs. Hazel Balthazar Howard of Marshall retired in 1977 after thirty-seven years of teaching. She was born in Louisiana, but was educated in that state and in Texas. Her teaching degree came from Texas College in Tyler, and her Master degree from Denver University. After six years of teaching in Longview, she came to Marshall and taught for thirty-one years. Her school resume included Pemberton High School, where she taught English. The picture is from the PHS yearbook, possibly 1950-1953. She was active in several teacher organizations. She also volunteered at the public library, her church, the parochial school, and a nursing home. Although active outside her home, she was mother to four children and grandmother to seven. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18055/
[Nineteenth-Century Religious Leader, Marshall]
Rev. J. H. Hudson was a nineteenth-century religious leader in Marshall. Born in Alabama in 1839, he came to Texas as a slave in 1848, and was reared on a farm near Scottsville [near Marshall]. He never attended school, but was taught his letters and nurtured in his faith by other pastors. He was ordained in 1881. During his career he pastored St. Paul, Bethesda, Pine Bluff, Galilee, James Chapel and Gainesville Baptist churches. He was elected to the Texas legislature, but did not take his seat. He was active in the Texas and Louisiana Baptist Association. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18088/
[Principal G. A. Rosborough, Marshall Educator]
Mr. Garfield A. Rosborough was principal of Pemberton High School in Marshall from 1944 to 1972. He was born August 21, 1903 in Harrison County, where he was raised and educated. He received his teaching degree from Wiley College in Marshall, with graduate work at the University of Colorado. His entire career was spent at the local high schools. At Pemberton, his tenure was marked by extensive growth in the curriculum and in the physical plant. His total contribution to education spanned 48 years. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18054/
[East Texas Oil Museum, Kilgore]
An oil derrick stands in front of the East Texas Oil Museum. Located on the Kilgore College campus at Hwy 259 and Ross St, it commemorates the discovery of oil in East Texas in 1930. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18087/
[Old Grave, Harrison County ]
An unidentified grave is located in the Old Border Cemetery in Harrison County. The cemetery belongs to Old Border Baptist Church in the Jonesville community near Waskom. The church and its cemetery were originally organized by whites in 1866. By the early part of the twentieth century they had become African-American. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18053/
[Marshall Hotel, Marshall]
The multi-story Marshall Hotel is a landmark in downtown Marshall. It is located on E. Houston Street. The corner shown is E. Houston and Lafayette. The building to the left of the hotel is the Mahon Building, was an office building at the time of the picture, c1970. After many years of standing empty and neglected, the hotel is currently under restoration. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18086/
[Children's Group Begins Bus Trip, Marshall]
Mrs. Dorothy Morrison, Marshall Public Library Director, prepares to lead children onto a chartered Continental Trailways bus for an outing. The bus driver offers his hand to assist Mrs. Morrison at right. Children are unidentified, as is the purpose of the trip. The group left from the library's parking lot. See other pictures of the event. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18052/
[Maplecroft House, Marshall]
Maplecroft is also known as the Starr Home, built by James Franklin Starr in the 1870s. The Starr family owned a land agency during the years when Marshall was a center of transportation and communication. The home was deeded to the state of Texas by the last Starr descendant living there. It is now open to the public and maintained by the Texas Historical Commission. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18085/
[Most Popular Eighth Grade Girl and Boy]
A pair of teenagers, identified as Evelyn Harris and Kenneth Patterson, posed for a school yearbook picture in Marshall. The location appears to be on one of the city's college campuses, as suggested by the large multi-story building behind them. The period of the early 1950s is suggested by the model of the automobile in the background. The couple were chosen as their school's "Most Popular" girl and boy. Their school would probably have been Central/Pemberton High School. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18051/
[Jimmie Pitts Caviness, Singer]
Mrs. Jimmie Pitts Caviness, contralto singer, is featured in this clipping from a newspaper, program, or newsletter, date unknown. She was born in Mexia. She earned a bachelor's degree at Bishop College, Dallas. She studied music at Westminster Choir College, where she earned the Master of Music Degree. She continued vocal studies at Aspen School of Music and received advanced vocal coaching from several teachers. She won the Regional Metropolitan Opera Auditions, and other awards for achievement in music. She appeared with orchestras, concertized, taught voice, and conducted choirs. She lived in Cleveland, Ohio. She was married to Dr. Theophilus Caviness. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18050/
[Historic Train District, Marshall]
The scene shows part of the historic train district of Marshall. In the right background, some freight cars and the upper story of the train depot appear behind the ticket office, which is in the right center. When passengers bought tickets, they descended into a tunnel which went underneath the tracks to the depot. In the left center is the Ginocchio Hotel, which served rail traffic for many decades. The picture dates from the 1960's. The hotel has been used for a number of venues, including restaurants and a museum, since the heyday of rail service. The All Things Good restaurant figures prominently in the image. The depot was restored during the 1990's and is now a railroad museum. Although the rail yards which made Marshall a rail center are long gone, the T&P railroad and AMTRAK still use the rail route with scheduled stops. The preservation of this historic area has been a highlight of community activity. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18084/
[Marshall Public Library Event]
Mrs. Gail Morrow, staff cataloger for Marshall Public Library, at an author signing c2004. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18049/
[The Gregg-Hampton mansion, Historic Home, Marshall]
The Gregg-Hampton mansion was located at 407 W. Rusk street in Marshall. In 1984, it was a victim of an early morning fire which rendered it beyond repair. The site now belongs to the First Baptist Church. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18083/
[Children's Group Begins Bus Trip, Marshall]
A smiling children's group begins an outing in Marshall, Texas. The nature of the trip is unknown; but the group departed from the Marshall Public Library in a Continental Trailways bus. The library director, Dorothy Morrison, led the group. Other members of the group are unidentified. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18048/
[Belle Crockett, Marshall Centenarian]
Mrs. Belle Crockett was 106 years old, confined to a wheelchair, and in a Marshall nursing home when she posed for this picture in the home's reception area, c1976. A daughter of former slaves, she spent her active life working in her home and on the farm. Married twice, she did not have children. Her birth and death dates are unknown. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18082/
[The Ginocchio Hotel and Restaurant]
The Ginocchio Hotel and Restaurant is located at 700 North Washington Ave., across the tracks from the train depot in Marshall. Local entrepreneur Charles Ginocchio hired architect C. G. Lancaster to design the hotel and oversee its construction, which was completed in 1896. The structure is noted for the interior paneling and staircase of rare curly pine and other rare innovations. The hotel has undergone restoration and various uses since the heyday of railroad travel. The small brick building in the foreground is the AMTRAK ticket office. Passengers descend through a tunnel under the tracks to reach the depot and platform, which are out of sight in the picture. At the left of the picture, beyond the hotel, one can glimpse several victorian homes which add to the historic importance of the entire North Washington area. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18081/
[Children's Group on a Bus Trip, Marshall]
A group of children travel by Continental Trailways bus on an outing from Marshall Public Library in Marshall. The group was led by director Dorothy Morrison. Other members of the group are unidentified. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18047/
[Grave of Claudia V. Lias, Marshall]
The grave of Claudia V. Lias is in Nichols Cemetery, Marshall. The name is engraved on both the larger stone and the smaller stone at top. Also engraved on the larger stone are the dates 1922-1947; and the words "U.S. Army" and "World War II." A floral arrangement stands behind. The cemetery, also known as "Old Sudduth," is located on Merrill Street in the eastern half of the city in the middle of a modern residential neighborhood. The acreage along Merrill was once a farm owned by the Merril family. The cemetery is primarily an African-American site. It is enclosed by a cyclone fence. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17980/
[Pemberton High School Students, Marshall]
A group of students is gathered in front of Pemberton High School in Marshall. The photograph appears to be from the 1960s. This facade shows the new wing which was added to the front of the old building, creating a courtyard between. Steps shown in front lead directly to Rosborough Springs St. Pemberton became a ninth- grade school in 1970 and was finally merged with Marshall High School in 1988. The building was sold to Wiley College, which is located across the street. Pemberton was named for H. B. Pemberton, the noted African-American educator (1867-1944) who was founder of Central School on Border St., the first public school in Marshall for African-American students. In 1925 Central was moved to the Rosborough Springs site, designated a high school, and renamed in 1941 to honor Pemberton, its first principal. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18046/
[Helen Sheppard, Marshall Educator]
Mrs. Helen A. Sheppard taught "Home and Family Life" classes at Pemberton High School in Marshall. The photograph is probably from a PHS yearbook. Nothing is known about her life. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18045/
[Graves in Harrison County]
Graves in an unidentified cemetery in Harrison County are illegible. The word "Family" appears on the standing stone. The graves appear to be0 decorated with plants. At the edge of the site is a cyclone fence with privacy fencing behind. Other stones are visible in the distance. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17979/
[Dr. Everett H. Leach, Harrison County Physician]
Dr. Everett H. Leach, early African-American physician, was born in Marshall in 1879 or 1881 (tombstone date). He entered Bishop College at age twelve. He received his medical degree from Flynt Medical College in New Orleans. Later he studied at Illinois Post-Graduate School in Chicago. He settled in the rural Leigh community east of Marshall, where he built a practice, erected a drug store and office, and owned two farms. Later he moved to Marshall and commuted to Leigh by automobile. According to his tombstone, he died March 31, 1946, and was buried in the Powder Mill Cemetery on FM 1997, Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18044/
[Dr. Joseph J. Rhoads, President of Bishop College]
Dr. Joseph J. Rhoads was an educator, administrator, and advocate for civil rights in education who completed his career as the first African-American president of Bishop College in Marshall. He was born in 1890 in Marshall, and was educated there. He received his first degree from Bishop College; his second degree from the University of Michigan; and a Lit. D. degree from Bishop College. He also did graduate work at Yale University, receiving a scholarship there. He held numerous positions as teacher and school administrator from Texas to Alabama before being appointed to the presidency of Bishop in 1929. He led Bishop to its first accreditation by the Texas Dept. of Education and other major accrediting associations. During his tenure, Dr. Rhoads discontinued Bishop's high school department, opened a junior college campus in Dallas, and affiliated with the United Negro College Fund. He also organized the Lacy Kirk Williams Ministers' Institute, a short-term training center for inservice ministers and laity. He consistently advocated for racial equality in education through the offices he held in numerous organizations. Dr. Rhoads died in 1951, and was buried in the McJohnson Cemetery in Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17978/
[Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church, Marshall]
Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church is located at 801 W. Grand Ave. (Hwy 80) in Marshall. Bethesda is a traditionally African-American congregation with roots to 1867, that period after Emancipation when African-Americans were establishing their own churches. A pastor of the white First Baptist Church, Rev. A. E. Clemmons, and a black preacher, Rev. William Massey, worked together to found the original congregation of 450 persons that met in Massey's home. Originally the congregation was known simply as "Colored Baptist Church," the name on the deed. When the members elected to change the name, they identified with the pool of Bethesda in Biblical Jerusalem. It means "a source of healing and comfort, a pool or spring of healing water." The word "Missionary" was added to the name in the mid-1980's to reflect denominational affiliation. Throughout its history, Bethesda has included notable citizens who made contributions both locally and far beyond Marshall. One of the founders was David Abner, who was Harrison County treasurer, a member of the state legislature, and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1875. Abner and the Bethesda congregation helped to found Bishop College, the black Baptist institution which was located in Marshall 1881-1961. Bethesda's first dedicated church building was a one-story wooden structure raised on the current site. A picture of it may be seen in the Texas History Portal. During 1897-1901, that structure was razed; and then an enlarged Gothic-style brick edifice was constructed on the same site. This one burned in 1953 and was replaced by the nearly identical building shown. Views in the picture are the south and east facades on a late fall afternoon. Three youths are on the lawn and the front steps. In 2008 this historic church was listed on the "Buard History Trail" which recognizes local sites significant to the city's African-American heritage. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17977/
[Tracks into Marshall]
Railroad tracks lead into Marshall. The direction and location of view are unidentified. In the distance, the tall structures of Marshall Mill and Elevator Company are visible. The industry is located next to the tracks and railroad yards. The season appears to be winter or early spring. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18043/
[Boston A. Russell, Marshall Educator]
The Pemberton High School yearbook photograph of band director Boston A. Russell. The yearbook date may be from 1950-53 or 1964. No information is available about Mr. Russell. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18042/
[Grave of Richard Bennett, Harrison County]
The grave of Richard Bennett is located in an unidentified Harrison County Cemetery. One date on the stone is visible in the picture: Nov. 15 1891. Other words on the stone are "Texas CPL 317 AM TN 92 DIV World War I. A plain encircled cross decorates the top of the stone. In the background are other stones and markers that place this grave in a cemetery. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17976/
[Rosetta J. Randolph, Marshall Educator]
Mrs. Rosetta J. Randolph taught "Home and Family Life" classes at Pemberton High School in Marshall, according to this yearbook photograph. The yearbook may date from 1950-53 or 1964. No information is available about her life. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18041/
[African-American Woman in Harrison County]
An unidentified African-American woman rests in a chair in an unknown location. She is of Marshall or Harrison County. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17975/
[African-American Man in Harrison County]
Unidentified African-American man in Harrison County. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18040/
[Dr. M. W. Dogan, Wiley College President]
Dr. Matthew Winfred Dogan was a Marshall educator who became president of Wiley University (now Wiley College) in 1896 and served in that office for more than 45 years. M. W. Dogan Elementary School in Marshall was named for him. Dr. Dogan was born December 21, 1863 in Pontotoc, Mississippi, to William and Jennie Dogan. His parents purchased their own and their children's freedom from slavery through frugality and hard work; so that Matthew Winfred was born free. He earned his education from first grade through graduation from college by working as a bootblack in his father's barbershop. In 1886 he received his A.B. degree in mathematics from Rust University, where he was noted for his high scholarship and his logical mind. After three years on the faculty at Rust, he was called to a mathematics professorship at Central Tennessee College (later Walden College). Success there led to his appointment to the Wiley presidency, becoming only the second African-American to attain that office. In 1888 he married Fannie Forrest Faulkner, also a teacher. They were the parents of seven children. She died on June 16, 1929. The article surrounding the photograph describes the occasion on which Dr. Dogan was honored for his long tenure. The event was a convocation in the Wiley College chapel, June 2, 1941. Methodist Bishops, educators from other colleges, ministers, and the Wiley Board of Trustees spoke of his meritorious service. In addition, there were testimonials in letters and telegrams from state governors, college presidents, and others. Dr. Dogan is buried in the Wiley College Cemetery in Marshall. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17974/
[Galilee Baptist Church, Marshall]
Galilee Baptist Church in Marshall is a congregation with traditional African-American roots. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18039/
[New Bethel Missionary Baptist Church]
New Bethel Missionary Baptist Church is located at 408 Milton St. in Marshall. That address places the church in the "New Town Neighborhood" in west Marshall where many African-Americans established institutions, businesses, professional offices, and residences around Wiley College, c1930. The neighborhood has been the focus of A "Historic Preservation Action Plan" that was presented to the Marshall Landmark Preservation Board and the Texas Historical Commission. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17973/
[William M. Reed, Marshall Educator]
Mr. William M. Reed was Assistant Coach and Teacher of Physical Education. The photograph is probably from a Pemberton High School yearbook, possibly from 1950-53 or 1964. No further information is available. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18038/
[Potters Creek Cemetery, Harrison County]
Potters Creek Cemetery is located in Harrison County. It is on the south side of Hwy 449 (Hynson Springs Rd.) across from Potters Creek Church. This is east of the village of Hallsville near Bailey Cutoff. As shown in the picture, one travels about 100 yards down a lane with a big gate. A vehicle, possibly a hearse, is in the lane with an unidentified man standing nearby. The roof of a structure is visible in the distance. No graves appear in the picture. The cemetery is traditionally African-American. According to its catalog, the oldest death date is 1883. The cemetery is still used and maintained. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17972/
[College Faculty, Marshall]
This page came from a yearbook, either Bishop College or Wiley College in Marshall. The words designate that photos are of college faculty. The teachers and the name "Haggard" are unidentified. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth18037/
[Tim Parchman, T&P Blacksmith, Marshall]
Tim Parchman of Marshall was featured as a retiree in T&P Topics, the railroad newsletter. According to the text accompanying his picture, he was a blacksmith, born in Marshall, who came to work for T&P in the railroad shops on Feb. 25, 1926. The T&P Topics news item was dated May, 1957. texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth17971/