The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 1, July 1897 - April, 1898 Page: 17
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History of Texas Geography.
thence up that stream to where it is intersected by the 100th me-
ridian of longitude west from Greenwich; thence. due north to the
Arkansas river; thence up that river to its source; thence north to
the 42d parallel of north latitude; thence west to the Pacific Ocean.
This took from Spain all territory east of the Sabine, below the 32d
parallel, and added it to Louisiana, while it took from the United
States the whole of the Red river watershed on the south from
Louisiana and Arkansas to the 100th meridian, and the whole of
the Mississippi river watershed west of that meridian, south of the
Arkansas river. Florida was purchased by the treaty, so that it was.
tantamount to an even exchange of territory. The feeble claim
which the United States asserted to the Rio Grande was formally
The United States had a valid claim to the Mississippi river wa-
tershed, extending to the Rocky Mountains, but De Onis, the Span-
ish minister who negotiated for Spain, by representing to Mr. Ad-
ams that the source of Red river was only a few leagues from Santa
Fe, and that such proximity of the two nations might endanger
their peace, and that the intermediate country was so impregnated
with nitre as not to be susceptible of habitation, and, therefore,
valueless, induced Mr. Adams to stop at the 100th meridian.
These were the limits to Texas when the country was wrested
from Spain by Mexico in 1821, and the limits as recognized by Mex-
ico in 1822.
Mexico having become a Republic, and adopted a constitution in'
1824, consolidated the territory of Texas with that of Coahuila, and
organized the two into one State, known as the State of Coahuila
and Texas, with no change in boundaries while it remained under
the sovereignty of Mexico.
Liberal colonization laws, a homestead exemption of 4428 acres
of land to heads of families, and one-fourth that quantity to ,single-
persons, protection against debts contracted prior to removal to
Texas, freedom from taxation for ten years, and many other induce-
ments, soon brought an influx of Anglo-American population. Af-
ter a prosperous growth of ten years, events began to transpire
which had their culmination in the separation of Texas from Mex-
ico, and its erection into an independent Republic in 1836.
The Congress of the Republic of Texas, on the 19th of Decem-
ber, 1836, fixed the western boundary at the Rio Grande, from its
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 1, July 1897 - April, 1898, periodical, 1897/1898; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101009/m1/27/: accessed June 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.