The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 1, July 1897 - April, 1898 Page: 20
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20 Texas Historical Association Quarterly.
with embraced more than 100,000 square miles, now included in
New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
There was yet another adjustment to be made. The treaty of
1819 described the 100th meridian "as laid down on Melish's map."
This meridian was more than 100 miles east of the true 100th me-
ridian. In the act of December 19, 1836, the Republic of Texas
made her eastern boundaries coterminous with the western bound-
ary of the United States, as fixed by the treaty of 1819. The area
between the true 100th meridian and the 100th meridian according
to Melish's map, extended from Red river north to the parallel of
36 degrees 30 minutes, and was more than 100 miles in width, em-
bracing an area of about 16,000 square miles. According to strict
construction of the treaty of 1819, this strip belonged to Texas. It
was held by the Supreme Court of the United States, however, that
Texas was estopped from claiming this strip, for the following rea-
1. Because, by the compromise act of 1850, wherein she ceded
all territory north of 36 degrees 30 minutes and west of the 100th
meridian, it meant the true meridian and not the Melish meridian.
2. In the creation of the counties of Lipscomb, Hemphill, and
Wheeler, the true 100th meridian was made their eastern boundary.
3. The ascertainment of the true 100th meridian had been ac-
quised in, recognized and treated as the true boundary by various
acts of Texas, and that both governments had treated that as the
proper boundary in the disposition they made of the territory in-
volved, through a long series of years.
This view being virtually conceded as to all the strip, except 3840
square miles east of the true 100th meridian, and between the forks
of Red river, the question for solution was, as contended by the
United States, whether the line following the course of Red river
eastward to the 100th meridian met the 100th meridian at the point
where it intersected the lower fork of Red river, or whether it in-
tended the upper fork, as contended by Texas. At the former
place, the United States had erected a monument to indicate the
intersection of Red river by said meridian, in 1857. On the same
meridian, where it met the 36 degrees 30 minutes parallel, another
monument was erected. In other words, which was the main
stream of Red river? If the north fork, then the area was in Texas;
if the south fork, it was outside of Texas.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 1, July 1897 - April, 1898, periodical, 1897/1898; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101009/m1/30/: accessed December 16, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.