The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 1, July 1897 - April, 1898 Page: 29
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Tribal Society Among Texas Indians.
alone used that defense against the white people in our time, but
which, it is plain from the old narrative, was understood and used
by a tribe in Texas more than three centuries before. His descrip-
tion of the Indians on the coast also tallies with our knowledge of
the Carankawas. About 1630, Maria de Agreda, a Spanish mission-
ary lady, spent some years among the wild tribes of Texas. None
of her writings are known to be in existence, but she is quoted by
Father Manzanet, in 1692, he having seen her report to the "Father
Custodian of New Mexico." In this quotation, there is mention of
the "Kingdom of the Theas," showing that the same tribes then in-
habited this country which we found two hundred years after.
The French expedition of La Salle, in 1685, of which a narrative
has survived, describes the Carankawas, and the Cenis, a Caddo tribe
on the Neches, at whose village the distracted Frenchmen were
Captain Francisco de Leon's expedition, in 1692, crossed Texas
from the Rio Grande to Red river. The narrative by Father Man-
zanet, the missionary priest who accompanied it, gives a full ac-
count of the various tribes visited by them in "This province of the
Texas, which by another name is called Acenay, and also some
chiefs of the Cadodoches." The French governor, D'Iberville,
about 1714, gives a list of tribes, in which the Caddos, Comanches,
and Lipans, appear. From that time to the advent of the American
settlers, a hundred years later, there is frequent mention of our
It is plain, then, that the aboriginal tribes which occupied Texas
had come from widely different and distant localities, arriving in
different ages, extending back some four centuries, and in all prob-
ability very many ages. There is nothing to indicate a common
parentage but the race, while their languages, having no common
radical words, show that their ancestors were aliens in extremely
ancient times. Yet, all the tribes were organized on the same iden-
tical plan. There was but little difference in their low scale of ad-
vancement, yet there was a difference.
Taking a low tribe for an example. It was divided first into two
bands, or brotherhoods. The members of each were prohibited
from marrying in their own band, but had to seek husband or wife,
as the case might be, in the opposite division. Thus the bands were
continually changed and perpetually renewed. The Carankaways
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 1, July 1897 - April, 1898, periodical, 1897/1898; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101009/m1/40/: accessed September 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.