The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 3, July 1899 - April, 1900 Page: 182
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182 Texas Historical Association Quarterly.
of New Mexico, Sierra Encantada, and Galeana, the writer found
the little thin-shelled kind at the latter place the same as those at
the other two. And though Cabeza de Vaca does not say what was
the species to which those he described belonged, the thin-shelled
kind of Galeana might well be included in that of the pinus edulis.
Anyway, the fact that they are there in abundance may serve to
show that the piion part of Cabeza de Vaoa's description is fairly
answered by the facts on the ground at Galeana; and the reader may
determine for himself whether these signs of identity require
the application of the rule to make them, as called for after they got
the hawkbell, control the calls for time and distance before reach-
ing them, and whether the Alcantarillas is the beautiful river and
Galeana the place on its bank referred to by Cabeza de Vaca, who
could have known such facts only by experience.
Of the hawkbell Cabeza de Vaca says: "They told us that where
it came from there were many flat thin pieces of that metal buried,
* * * and there were houses with foundations there, and this
we believed to be the South Sea, as we always had notice that it is
richer than that of the North."14
How did they get such notice as to, the South Sea or Pacific?
Does not this indicate impressions received after they reached the
Spanish settlements? It will be remembered that this was between
the first and second great rivers, rendering it impossible for it to
have been on the Pacific slope under any theory as to these rivers
yet read by the 'writer.
If, as Cabeza de Vaca says, the Indians told him "they got it from
others their neighbors, who brought it from towards the north," is
it not fair to presume he there meant the North Sea, as he called
the Gulf? Were not the circumstances such as to aid the con-
clusion that his meaning was, that they brought the hawkbell from
towards the Gulf? If so, is not such aid powerfully corroborated
by the fact that the hawkbell was obtained before they reached the
place where they ate the piiiones, but after leaving the mountain
within fifteen leagues of the Gulf coast?
For more than thirteen years before Cabeza de Vaca went through
the country, there were Spanish settlements at Panuco and along
the coast there, where the Indians could have bartered for such
1Naufragios, Cap. XXIX.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 3, July 1899 - April, 1900, periodical, 1900; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101015/m1/194/: accessed November 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.