The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 7, July 1903 - April, 1904 Page: 96
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96 Texas HTistorical Association Quar'terly.
west of the Mississippi.1 This large immigration of Cherokees led
to trouble, on the one hand, with the aborigines whose hunting
grounds they appropriated, and, on the other, with the whites who
were opposed to seeing their fertile lands closed to the settler by
the presence of the Indians. The government was obliged to inter-
fere in the interest of peace and good order. Again a party of
Cherokees packed up their trappings and departed; and again they
sought refuge under the hospitable roof of the Spaniard. They
crossed the Sabine into the province of Texas, and Spain, which
had hitherto sought to expel every Anglo-American immigrant who
dared to tread her soil, appears to have raised no objection.
The precise date of the entrance of the Cherokees into Texas has
not been ascertained. While yet residing in Arkansas their hunt-
ing and trapping expeditions doubtless led them to traverse the
plains west and south of the Sabine and Red Rivers. This region
was claimed by the Caddoes, but they had already been robbed of a
large portion of the western part by the prairie Indians. The
Cherokees were friends to the Caddoes. The latter had permitted
them to settle upon their lands on the Red River.2 In the winter
of 1819-20 the first party of Cherokees, numbering sixty warriors,
removed to Texas3 and settled near what was then perhaps the
boundary line between the Caddoes and prairie Indians.
For over a century Spain had made attempts at colonizing
Texas; and down to 1806 she had made at least some progress. At
that time the white population of the province numbered about
seven thousands souls. Over one hundred thousand head of cattle
and between forty and fifty thousand tame horses grazed on the
broad prairies.4 Fifteen hundred soldiers garrisoned the various
frontier posts. San Antonio and Nacogdoches had stripped off the
garb of such posts and imitated the fashions of the capital. But
the outbreak of the struggle for independence in 1810 marks the
1C. C. Royce, The Cherokee Nation, in the Report of the American
Bureau of Ethnology for 1883-4, 218.
2W. A. Trimble to John C. Calhoun, August 7, 1818, in Jedediah
Morse's Report to the Secretary of War, 256.
National Intelligencer, September 15, 1820.
'Almonte's Noticia Estadistica sobre Tejas, in Filisola's Memorias para
la Historia de la Guerra de Tejas, II 537.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 7, July 1903 - April, 1904, periodical, 1904; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101030/m1/100/: accessed April 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.