The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 7, July 1903 - April, 1904 Page: 51
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Reminiscences of Early Texans.
[11.] Miscellaneous Remarks.-By J. H. K.
During colonial times in Texas the full stock rifle with flint and
steel lock was the gun generally used. After the invention of the
percussion lock many were slow to adopt it.
Beef cut in strings and dried, penole and coffee, were the usual
provisions for a campaign. In long campaigns each mess of eight
or ten men had a packborse. The men never encumbered them-
selves with anything that was not indispensable. Tents were not
used in campaigns against the Indians.-From the first settlement
of Austin's colony until the war of Independence-a period of four-
teen years-every man furnished his own horse, arms, ammunition
and provisions and never received any compensation whatever.
During the war of Independence privates received eight dollars
a month and three hundred and twenty acres of land for three
months' service.-The soldier, when discharged, was generally with-
out money or clothing and was often necessitated to sell scrip and
Land Warrant at a very great sacrifice, to purchase a few articles
of apparel. I have also known men to sell their warrants for five
or ten cents an acre in order to buy an outfit for another campaign.
With here and there an exception, those who made the most patri-
otic sacrifices and devoted the best years of their lives to the service
of their country, are now amongst the poorest men in it. In bat-
tling to extend "the area of Freedom" they have contracted the area
of their purses almost to the starving point.
In that portion of the State embraced within the limits of Aus-
tin's colony, the face of the country has greatly changed since
its first settlement. In 1821 and for several years afterwards, wild
oats and wild rye grew in great luxuriance in the bottoms of the
Brazos and Colorado. These fine grasses have long since disap-
peared. In many localities in the same bottoms where dense and
extensive cane brakes formerly existed, scarcely a cane can now be
found. Many of the prairies on which, of old, the grass waved in
rank luxuriance, have been grazed and trodden by stock until weeds
and bushes are fast usurping their surface. Formerly the annual
burning of the grass prevented the spread of forest vegetation in the
Thirty years ago the currents of the small creeks in the hilly and
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 7, July 1903 - April, 1904, periodical, 1904; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101030/m1/55/: accessed September 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.