The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 8, July 1904 - April, 1905 Page: 134
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134 Texas Historical Association Quarterly.
ever it was possible, peaceful methods were employed. On several
occasions formal treaties were entered into. One of the most im-
portant treaties of peace that concerned De Witt's colonists was
made in 1827, when ttey, together with De Le6n's and Austin's
colonists, effected a treaty with the Karankawas.
Of all the tribes the Karankawas, perhaps, had given most
trouble to the first settlers of Austin's colony. Austin himself,
during the early days, had tried to make peace with them. But
the tribe was divided into two bands, the Cocos and those under
the leadership of Antofiito, a mission-born Indian. It was Anto-
fiito's people alone who at that time promised peace, and it wars
the Cocos who had committed the most serious depredations. Hos-
tilities, therefore, had continued as before. On May 13, 1827,
De Witt, James Kerr, De Le6n, Jacob Betts-a representative
from Austin's colony-and others met at Guadalupe Victoria and
under the direction of the general commandant, Anastacio Busta-
mante, concluded with the Karankawas a treaty of peace upon the
1. The treaty of peace made September 22, 1824, was to remain
2. The limit which, according to article 2 of the above men-
tioned treaty was placed at the Guadalupe river, was extended to
3. Antofiito, who was to remain chief of the Karankawas,
promised to reduce to a state of peace those of his tribe who were at
war with Austin's colonists, with the understanding that unless hos-
tilities should cease the forces of Mexico and of the colonies should
be employed against them.
4. Antofiito was to have a passport in order that he might not
be molested by the American colonists when he went to speak with
the Cocos concerning this treaty.
5. The women and children who were prisoners at San Felipe de
Austin should remain there until Austin and the colonists were
assured that the Indians were at peace.
6. The Karankawas promised to keep peace with the Americans
as well as the Mexicans, with whom they had never been at war.
Antofiito was, as far as possible, to hold himself responsible for this
peace. All injuries done to Americans by Karankawas or to Karan-
kawas by Americans were to be punished.
7. All American families who might arrive at any point on the
1It seems that according to the first treaty the Indians were to be al-
lowed to come as far east as the Guadalupe. They were now forbidden
to cross the Lavaca.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 8, July 1904 - April, 1905, periodical, 1905; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101033/m1/136/: accessed September 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.