The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 9, July 1905 - April, 1906 Page: 52
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52 Texas Historical Association Quarterly
river, below the junction of the Clear Fork, called the Brazos
Agency, and the other sixty miles west on the Clear Fork, called
the Comanche Reserve.
The native tribes of Texas consisted of two classes, the agri-
cultural and the nomadic. Twelve of the agricultural class be-
longed to the Caddo family, and inhabited that part of the state
lying east of the Brazos river, while the range of the class that
depended on the chase for a subsistence was found in the western
portion. Though at the time the Caddo tribes were first encoun-
tered by the white man they existed in separate tribes, they had a
tradition that they had in time past been confederated and formed
one nation, which similarity of language, tribal government, and
laws of inheritance and marriage substantiate. They were more
advanced towards civilization than any tribes north of Mexico,
living in villages of good tents, wearing dress and ornaments, and
cultivating the ground, producing crops of corn, melons, pumpkins,
etc., which they providently stored for winter use. Though mak-
ing incursions into other regions for the purpose of hunting, they
always returned to their permanent home. Coronado encountered
the Tejas Indians in the plains region and made use of them as
guides to his expedition in 1540, and commends them for their
faithfulness. Their village was on the east side of the Neches
river, where Father Manzanet, who accompanied DeLeon's expedi-
tion into Texas for the purpose of dislodging the French in 1690,
finding them so amenable and kindly, established the first Texas
Mission, San Francisco de los Tejas, for their benefit. The good
father expresses surprise at their crude civilization, and their
system of tribal government, and above all at their ideas of re-
ligion, which recognized a chief spirit whom they called "Ayimat
Caddo," and included a dim, undefined conception of a future
state, as evidenced by the custom of burying provisions and weapons
with the dead. He notes the deference paid by the tribe to its
head chief or governor, who lived in a larger and better furnished
house than the others and exacted a degree of reverence from his
people that was suggestive of the ceremonies of royal courts among
tThe Texas Almanac, for 1859, p. 130.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 9, July 1905 - April, 1906, periodical, 1906; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101036/m1/56/: accessed August 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.