The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 9, July 1905 - April, 1906 Page: 54
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54 Texas Historical Association Quarterly.
fervid zeal, but courage of a high order in their attempt to civilize
the fierce Texan tribes. After annexation, the Apaches, on ac-
count of the protection given their habitual range by the United
States forts, had fallen back into New Mexico. The Kiowas
claimed the Pan Handle of Texas for their range, and had made
a treaty in 1853, agreeing to keep the peace and refrain from all
hostilities for an annual payment of $18,000 for ten years. How
well it was kept will hereafter be seen. Finally must be named
the numerous and powerful Comanches, a tribe of ferocious sav-
ages. All of the nomadic class were fearless horsemen, though
awkward and ungainly on foot, supplying themselves in early
times with horses from the herds of wild mustangs that roamed
the western plains, and in later days by appropriating the numer-
ous caballadas of the ranches of the settlements. Colonel Marcy,
in his Thirty Years of Army Life on the Border, published in
1866, estimates their number at twelve to eighteen thousand. They
were in three grand divisions, called by themselves, respectively,
the Tennawas, Yamparacks, and Comanches, of which only the
two latter ranged as far south as Texas. The band which was the
dreaded foe of the Texan frontier was the last of these, or the
Southern Comanches, for whom the Comanche Reserve on the
Clear Fork of the Brazos was established.
Like all the other tribes, no matter how savage or migratory,
the Comanches had their tribal laws, to which they clung with per-
tinacity. Their chiefs were elective and exercised a patriarchal
rather than despotic control. They had a head chief and each
clan or band had a chief besides, and all questions per-
taining to the tribe were settled by a council. They called them-
selves "Naini," live people, as opposed to the peaceful tribes upon
whom they had always preyed, and who held these ferocious foes
in as great dread as did the white settlers. Though enemies of the
Tonkawas, the Comanches were in alliance with the Apaches and
Kiowas. There is a tradition that the Comanches were at first
friendly to the Americans, though always the foes of the Spaniards.
The San Saba Mission was successfully maintained for a long
period for the benefit of these Indios bravos until mines were
opened; and it may readily be conjectured that, in forcing these
untutored savages to labor in them, a repetition of the cruel treat-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 9, July 1905 - April, 1906, periodical, 1906; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101036/m1/58/: accessed August 16, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.