The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 9, July 1905 - April, 1906 Page: 84
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Texas Historical Association Quarterly.
figures are fairly substantiated by other evidence.1 The popula-
tion was a mixture of Spanish, French, and Indians, and, perhaps,
Negroes. Much of the recent growth seems to have been due to
an influx, after Louisiana became a Spanish province, of French
and half-breeds from Natchitoches, some of them Indian traders.
2. Antonio Gil Ybarbo.-The most prominent citizen of the
vicinity was Antonio Gil Ybarbo, who becomes the central charac-
ter of the remainder of this sketch. The few facts that we can
gather of his previous career shed light upon conditions on the
eastern frontier, and, viewed in connection with Ybarbo's subse-
quent influence, upon the attitude of the government towards these
conditions. Ybarbo was a native of Adaes, and at the time when
this story opens he was about forty-four years old.2 By his
enemies he was reputed to be a mulatto.8 Though his headquar-
ters seem to have been at Adaes, he was the owner of and lived
part of the time upon a large ranch, called El Lobanillo (the Mole
or Wart), situated near the mission of Los Ais. The documents
represent this ranch as "already a pueblo," and tell us that Ybarbo
possessed there a large amount of stock. In addition to his ranch-
ing interests he was also a trader, having for several years main-
tained commercial relations, both at Adaes and El Lobanillo, with
a wealthy French merchant, Nicolas de la Mathe, from Point
'See page 89.
"According to a statement made by Ybarbo in 1792 he was then sixty-
three years old. This would have made him about forty-four years old
in 1773. See a census of Nacogdoches, dated at Bfxar, Dec. 31, 1792, and
signed by Ybarbo (Bfxar Archives).
3This statement is based on the assertion of Juan Ugalde, comandante
general of the Eastern Internal Provinces, who was hostile to Ybarbo, and
who, at the time he made the assertion, was trying 'to secure Ybarbo's
removal from office (Ugalde to the viceroy, Oct. 30, 1788, in Consulta del
Sr. Comandante Gral., etc., 9-11).
"The Spanish documents render this name Punta Cortada or Puente
'Quaderno que Corresponde, 9; testimony of Fr. Josef Francisco Mariano
de la Garza, Nov. 14, 1787 (B6xar Archives). Garza was for several
years in charge of spiritual affairs at Bucareli and Nacogdoches, and he
knew Ybarbo well. His testimony was that of a warm supporter of
Ybarbo, and was, therefore, not intended to be damaging in any way.
For more about Father Garza, see pages 113-115; and about La Mathe,
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 9, July 1905 - April, 1906, periodical, 1906; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101036/m1/88/: accessed June 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.