The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 10, July 1906 - April, 1907 Page: 309
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A Study of the Route of Cabeza De Vaca.
tlhe beautiful river Oviedo has only two groups of people met with
before reaching the river of permanent houses, and his last is evi-
dently the last group of Cabeza, also; for both narratives have the
women sent forward from these and note here other incidents in
common. Cabeza has the group of people just back of this last
meet the Spaniards immediately after crossing the first great river
and traversing thirty leagues of plains. He says these were the
first to whom those of the beautiful river took them, after passing
the other unrecallable many. With him both these and the last were
from "afar off." But Oviedo says that it was this first people
"from afar" who gave them the first pifions, and among whom the
trees grew so abundantly. This with him is evidently an inter-
mediate people which he has not noted elsewhere, and corresponds
to Cabeza's first people "from afar." Hence, if we trust the more
detailed account of Oviedo, the pifions were a great way from the
beautiful river-not at it-and they were across the first of
Cabeza's big rivers; making, in any case, the Pecos the river.
It now becomes a matter of decision from the known facts
whether the scant scattering of these nuts found north of the Pecos,
on its banks, in Uvalde and Edwards county, or the abundant
growth of them in the trans-Pecos region, shall constitute the
abundant groves spoken of by these chroniclers. Believing as I do
from Oviedo's statement that it was the latter, the passage of the
Colorado River on this journey is cut out of consideration, and the
Pecos, on the route directly west, thirty leagues beyond which they
met the first pifion people, is the first stream encountered after
leaving the region of the Llano River. Oviedo says' that the last
Indians, which were "from afar off," and were met just before
reaching the river of permanent houses, also gave them pifions.
If after crossing the Trans-Pecos ranges, so arid and fruitless, they
encountered a river, before reaching the Rio Grande, it must have
been some mountain stream like Cienega Creek or Cibolo or
Alamita Creek, at flood by recent rains. From there Cabeza says,2
"The same Indians [his first that came from afar] led us to a
plain beyond the chain of mountains," that is, to the second dis-
tant people, which latter were the same that led them finally to the
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 10, July 1906 - April, 1907, periodical, 1907; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101040/m1/347/: accessed January 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.