The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 187
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Missionaries Among the Apaches
and insignificance. The large tribes were all independent and self-
assertive, and steadfastly refused to bow to the will of the Span-
iards, although they often treacherously pretended to do so.
The chief difficulty with which the Spaniards of the eighteenth
century had to deal in western Texas was the hostility of the
Apaches.1 From the founding of San Antonio in 1718 we may
date the real beginning of this scourge. Hatred against the white
man had been aroused at the first coming of the Spaniards when
they had assisted the enemies of the Apaches, but it was not until
San Antonio was founded that any definite and convenient point
of attack had been available. The many raids upon the presidio.
thereafter revealed the fact that the Apaches were a dangerous
factor in the life of the settlement.
Recognizing this truth, the Marqu6s de Aguayo, on his expedi-
tion of 1721-1722, tried to make friends with the Apaches, but
conciliatory measures were of no avail. The multiplied raids in
1723 forced Captain Nicolas Flores to make a formal campaign
against them, but on account of the distance at which they lived
and the weak condition of the presidio, small permanent good came
from this expedition, although it is true that for a few years dep-
redations were less violent.
In 1731, however, the Apaches renewed their attacks and be-
came so troublesome that in the following year a well organized
campaign was undertaken against them by Governor Bustillo y
Zevallos. The Indians suffered a severe defeat on the San Sab6
River, and a treaty of peace was made with them. Their bad
faith was soon evident, for almost immediately thereafter San
Antonio again suffered a series of raids and massacres unparalleled
in previous years.
Some feeble efforts for defense were made by the viceregal ,gov-
ernment in Mexico. Joseph de Urrutia, a noted Indian fighter,
was appointed captain of B6xar, and preparations were made to
teach the Apaches a lasting lesson. The usual procrastination fol-
lowed, however, and, although there was no, cessation of attacks
by the Indians, it was not until 1739 that another formal expedi-
tion got under way. Several campaigns were made from 1740 to
'The remainder of this section is a summary of my article on "Apache
Relations in Texas, 1718-1750," in THE QUARTERLY, XIV, 199-274.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/192/: accessed September 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.