The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 29
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The Aguayo Expedition
enemies of those at the Mission of Valero, and trouble would be
the inevitable result.1
V6ldez, however, in obedience to orders, was constrained to re-
fuse the request, and required that the missionaries of both col-
leges, Captain Alonzo de Cardenas and his company of eighty
men, his sergeant, Nicolas Flores y Valdez, and Captain Lorenzo
Garcia, the last two having seen such a ceremony performed be-
fore, to accompany him to witness the formal giving of posses-
sion.2 The founding was probably early in March, 1720.
IV. THE EXPEDITION
1. From Monclova to the Rio Grande.--Our story of the ex-
pedition is obtained in the main from the diary of Pefia, the
chaplain, who accompanied it.' Aguayo divided the five hundred
men4 into eight companies and organized a battalion of mounted
infantry, which he called San Miguel de Arag6n. The following
officers were selected: lieutenant-governor and captain general,
Fernando P6rez de Almazan; captains, TomAs de Zubiria, Miguel
Col6n, Manuel de Herrera, Francisco Becerra Luque, Gabriel Cos-
10Opposicion a la fundacoion de la Mission de San Joseph del rio de San
Antonio aio de 1720. Santa Cruz de Queretaro, K N 5, Leg. 4, in B. MS.
'As seen in the bibliographical notes, this is the official copy of the itin-
erary of the expedition, printed in Mexico, 1722. Another copy of the itin-
erary of this expedition exists in Colecci6n de Memorias, XXVIII. The
latter copy has many errors. The most important of those which have an
essential bearing on the narration will be noticed as the narrative proceeds.
"It is difficult to say just what number of men Aguayo took to Texas.
Bonilla (Breve Compendio, in TIHE QUARTERLY, VIII, 32), says it was five
hundred dragoons and two companies of cavalry. As Miss West pointed
out (Ibid.), the Testimonio (Sec. 31), says five hundred mounted troops;
the Derrotero, as has already been seen mentions five hundred and eighty-
four in all, the eighty-four being those raised earlier in Saltillo (folio 10).
On folio 3 of the same Derrotero the statement is made that Aguayo made
a battalion of mounted infantry, "forming the five hundred men into eight
companies." The fact probably is that all told there were five hundred
men when the expedition left Monclova. The two companies of cavalry
mentioned by Bonilla were probably an addition made at the Rio Grande.
for the Derrotero (3), says, "Captain D. Alonzo de Cardenas and Captain
D. Juan Cortinas, with the soldiers which they had in their companies,
also set out" from the Rio Grande to Texas. Aguayo had much trouble
with deserters. To such an extent did the practice of deserting grow that
the commander was compelled to inflict the death sentence upon several
for the admonition of the rest (Diferentes Autos y otras providencias dic-
tadas por el Govor. Marques de S. Miguel de Aguayo, Archivo de la Secre-
taria de Govierno, Saltillo, ,alo de 1720, in B. MS.).
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/33/: accessed January 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.