The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 37
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The Aguayo Expedition
one they named the San Ybon was the present Guadalupe. For
Pefia describes their crossing of the former as being one-fourth
of a league from the well known springs that are the source of the
Comal, while the latter river he describes as having a deep bed,
subject to overflows, with its sources, lying far to the north, as
not having then been discovered. The crystalline water of the
former, the luxuriant growth, and the surrounding plains, at-
tracted attention to the locality as a suitable place for settlement.
With the route still lying to the northeast, with veerings to the
east-north-east, by May 20, they had crossed the San Marcos,1 not
recognizing it by that name, however. Its lower branches they
named las Penuelas, the river proper, los Ynocentes, and modern
Plum Creek, the San Raphael.2 At this last river a squad of
Sanas Indians fitted out with horses, pikes, and arrows, and whom
Aguayo himself had provided with clothes while at San Antonio,
were waiting to renew their allegiance to the Spanish King.
Continuing in a direction more north than east, on May 22, the
1The name San Marcos was given a river in Texas on the first expedition
into eastern Texas (De Len, Derrotero, entry for April 26, 1689). The
river to which it was given, however, while thought by some to be the
modern Colorado, was probably not such, as this is too far north for the
distance mentioned in the Derrotero. As far as distance and direction are
concerned, the Navidad would meet the specifications of the Derrotero.
As the first considerable river after the Guadalupe had been called the
San Marcos, when the route through Texas was pushed west and north,
the name San Marcos was carried with it and applied to the present river
of that name. Terfn did not confuse it with the old San Marcos when he
crossed it in 1691, but named it San Agustine (Demarcaci6n, entry for
June 19). It was given the correct name by Espinosa and Olivares in 1709
(Diario, entry of April 15), and by Ram6n (Derrotero) and Espinosa
(Diario), entries for May 20, 1716. Rivera (1727), like Aguayo, called it
los Ynocentes (Diario, entry for August 20).
'The name San Raphael was applied to modern Plum Creek for the first
time in Spanish diaries in 1709 (Espinosa and Olivares, Diario, entry for
April 16), and so named for the patron saint of the expedition. Consider-
ing its comparative smallness, it enjoyed a rather unusual continuity of
name. Ram6n (Derrotero, entry for May 20) says he named it the San
Raphael. Espinosa at the same time mentions it by this name, as does
Rivera in 1727 (Diario, entry for August, 1727).
It is interesting to note that Espinosa and Olivares (Diario. entry for
April 16, 1709), Ramn (Derrotero. entry for Mlay 20. 1716). Espinosa
(Diario, entry for May 20) and Pefia (Derrotero, entry for May 20, 1719),
all, shortly after leaving San Raphael, mention the passing of springs,
evidently modern Lytton Springs. Ram6n called the two springs San
Ysidro y San Pedro del Nogal, Espinosa called one San Ysidro. Peiia
recognized the same springs as the San Ysidro. This is interesting as
showing that the three routes lay at this point along the same course.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/42/: accessed May 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.