The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 66
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66 Texas Historical Association Quarterly
THE JUMANO INDIANS IN TEXAS, 1650-1771
HERBERT E. BOLTON
I. THE JUMANO MYSTERY
Among the many subjects on which the archives of Mexico are
now shedding new and much needed light, one is that of the his-
tory of the Jumano Indians after the middle of the seventeenth
century. In the early annals of New Mexico and southwestern
Texas the tribe was well known, and though they were less promi-
nent after 1 629, a few references to them between that date and
the end of the seventeenth century have been long available. But
of their movements thenceforth students have until recently found
little trace. Bandelier, writing in 1890, was constrained to say:
"The Jumanos were lost sight of after the great convulsions of
1680 and succeeding years, and their ultimate fate is as unknown
as their original numbers."1 Similarly, Hodge, in a recent study,
states that until shortly before his writing he had been "baffled by
what appeared to be the sudden and almost complete disappear-
ance of this once populous tribe."2 The present writer, through
his investigations in the archives of Mexico, had the good fortune
to pick up the thread again in 1907 and to show that from 1750
forward the Taovayas, a Wichita tribe of the Red River (Texas),
were regularly called "Jumanes" by the Spaniards of New Mexico.3
Hodge has taken this newly acquired information to be the key to
the solution of the mystery, and, in the recent study referred to,
has concluded that the Jumano formerly known in the Southwest
were identical with the Taovayas, and, under the latter name, were
'Final Report, in Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America,
American Series, III, 1890, p. 169.
2"The Jumano Indians," in the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian
Society at the Annual Meeting, April, 1909. My references are to the
reprint of that article.
3See an article on the "Taw6hash" by the present writer in Hodge,
Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Part II, p. 705. The
information concerning the Jumano in 1750 therein contained was compiled
in 1907. See Hodge, "The Jumano Indians," 19, notes.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/71/: accessed April 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.