The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 68
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Texas Historical Association Quarterly
second, that references to the Jumano in the eighteenth century
should be considered so scarce; the third, that the Jumano should
be regarded in the first half of the eighteenth century as primarily
a northern (with reference to Texas and New Mexico) rather than
a southern tribe;' the fourth, that no mention should be made of
Jumano who were not enemies but allies of the Apache, and even
regarded as Apache themselves.
As one who has experienced this surprise, the writer has at-
tempted to present, in the pages that follow, evidence to show that
the "Nueces River," where the Jumano were found in the third
and fifth decades of the seventeenth century, was probably the
Colorado River of Texas, rather than the Arkansas; that the Ju-
mano were frequently encountered in southern Texas between 16'75
and 1771, at least; and that in the second half of this period they
were regularly regarded as allies of the Apache, or even as Apache,
and, therefore, as hostile to the Wichita, a part of whom, the
Taovayas, we well know, were regularly called Jumano after 1750.
Everything here stated is with due deference to Mr. Hodge's great
learning in matters of Southwestern ethnology.
II. THE IDENTITY OF THE "RIO DE LAS NOEZES," HOME OF THE
The history of the Jumano before 1650 it is not my purpose to
discuss, but for the sake of clearness it may be briefly summarized.
The tribe was first seen by Cabeza de Vaca in 1535 on the Rio
Grande, near its junction with the Conchos River, a place known
as La Junta (the junction); in 1582 they were found in the same
place by Espejo; in 1598 they were receiving religious instruction
in eastern New Mexico; for several years before 1629 they visited
Fray Juan de Salas at Isleta, asking him to go to live among them;
in response to this request Father Salas in the year named visited
the tribe more than one hundred and twelve leagues to the east-
ward of Santa Fe, "or, possibly," says Mr. -lodge, "in the western
part of Kansas in the vicinity of what later became known as El
Quartelejo"; in 1632 they were again visited by Father Salas in
'Mr. William E. Dunn, for example, in a recent paper based on a wide
use of eighteenth century Texas sources, says of the name Jumano, "Most
commonly it applied to Indians living in southwestern Texas near the Rio
Grande." THE QUARTERLY, XIV, 268.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/73/: accessed November 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.