The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 69
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The Jumano, Indians, 1650-1771 69
the buffalo plains on a stream which the Spaniards called the
"Nueces"; in 1650 and yet again in 1654, they were encountered
on the "Nueces" River by Castillo and Guadalajara, respectively."
In a former article Hodge states that the "Nueces River" visited
in 1632 and 1650 "must have been the Arkansas";2 and in the
recent one already cited he holds the same opinion.3
As viewed by the present writer this conclusion as to the location
of the "Nueces River" does not seem warranted by the sources.
The "Ynforme" of Father Posadas,4 which is the chief authority
for the expeditions to the Nueces River between 1629 and 1655,
states clearly and in terms that the place visited by Martin and
Castillo in 1650 was far to the south of Santa F6. lie relates
that after reaching "this said place of the Rio de las Nueces and
this nation of los Jumanos," they went down stream east-southeast,
.and, after having traveled some fifty leagues, arrived at the bor-
ders of the Texas country. He then continues: "Among these
nations that of the Tejas must be (estard) in twenty-eight degrees;
from its limits said Captains Hernan Martin and Diego del Cas-
'Hodge, op. cit., Reprint, pp. 3-9.
2Land of Sunshine, XIV, 52; Posadas, "Ynforme," cited below.
'At this point he writes thus: "As previously stated, Fray Juan de
Salas, earlier in the century, found the Jumano on the prairies about 112
leagues eastward from the Rio Grande. But distances given by the early
Spanish travelers must be regarded as only approximate, and there is no
reason for believing that the tribe had moved farther away simply because
Captains Martin and Castillo, in 1650, are said to have found the Jumano
on the Nueces, 200 leagues from Santa F6. They may have been in prac-
tically the same spot during this quarter century. There is ground for
strong suspicion that the village or villages of the Jumano on the plains
at this time were in proximity to if not actually at the Quartelejo, or
Cuartelejo, mentioned frequently by writers of the eighteenth century. The
distance of the Jumano from Santa F6, according to two writers above
cited, varied from 112 to 200 leagues (300 to 530 miles); while El Cuar-
telejo, according to the record, was from 130 to 160 leagues (350 to 450
miles) from the New Mexican capital. This Indian outpost was situated
in the valley of Beaver Creek, in northern Scott county, Kansas." (op.
.cit., Reprint, 3.)
4"Ynforme hecho a su Magd. sobre las Tierras del Nuevo Mexico," MS.
in Memories para la historia de Nueva Espana, Tom. 3, ff. 1-18. Also in
Fernandez Duran, Don Diego de Peflalosa, Madrid, 1882. For a note on
Posadas, see Hodge, op. cit., Reprint, p. 11. The report was written as
late as 1686, in consequence of a royal o6dula of December 10, 1678, di-
rected to the viceroy of New Spain, and of another of August 2, 1685, to
a succeeding viceroy. Posadas states this in the opening paragraphs. The
references which I give are to my own MS copy.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/74/: accessed April 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.