The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 71
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The Jumano Indians, 1650-1771
identifying it with a stream much further south,1 namely, one of
the upper branches of the Colorado of Texas.
Being especially interested in the pearls carried back by the
party of Martin and Castillo, the viceroy ordered another explora-
tion of the Nueces River, and in 1654, Posadas tells us, Diego de
Guadalajara and thirty soldiers set out "in the direction stated"
[that is, southeast] to execute the command. "Having traveled
about two hundred leagues, they arrived at the Rio de las Noezes,
and found on it many Indians of the Jumano nation."2
It so happens that Juan Dominguez de Mendoza, a member of
the Guadalajara party, became the leader of another expedition to
the Jumano on the Nueces in 1684. This connecting link between
the two expeditions is important, for during the latter journey
Mendoza recognized the stream which he was then on as the one
Guadalajara had visited, and he kept a diary which beyond ques-
tion establishes the identity of the stream with one of the upper
branches of the Colorado, in west-central Texas.8
The Mendoza expedition was the result of a petition made by
Juan Sabeata, an Jumano Indian, at Paso del Norte in October,
1683, for missionaries and Spanish settlers in his own country.4
'It would be interesting, in this connection, to reproduce here the map
which Dr. Ethel Z. Rather, a careful scholar, made to illustrate the geo-
graphical facts stated in the Posadas "Ynforme," to accompany her trans-
lation of it, executed for the present writer. She had no thought, perhaps
no knowledge, of a possible controversy over the location of the Jumano
as understood by Posadas. Her conclusion agrees exactly with mine, as
"Ibid., f. 7. It is clear that Posadas regarded the Nueces River of
this expedition as identical with that visited by Martin and Castillo four
3The authority for the direct assertion that Mendoza was with Guad-
alajara is Posadas, "Ynforme," op. cit., 12. He says: "The commander-
in-chief, Juan Dominguez de Mendoza, was in this expedition and war."
Mendoza's recognition of the stream on which Guadalajara had been sup-
ports the assertion. Guadalajara was at the City of Mexico at the time
when Posadas was there writing his memorial, and Posadas must have
made the assertion on good authority. It is said, also, that Mendoza had
been there recently.
4This summary of the Mendoza expedition is based upon the MS. diary,
the correspondence, declarations, and representations connected with the
event. These documents are contained in two collections. One is entitled
"Autos sobre los Socorros q pide el Govr. de la Na. Mexico. y otras notas.
tocantes a la Sublevazion de los Yndios Barbaros de aquella Prova.,"- etc.
These are original manuscripts. The other collection is entitled "Viage
Que A solicitud de los Naturales de la Prova. de Texas, y otras naciones
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/76/: accessed July 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.