The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 75
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The Jumano, Indians, 1650-1771
of Taovayas, and in other ways disturbs views that have been
regarded as established.
It may be noted, as a preliminary to the discussion which fol-
lows, that the forms Juman, Chuman, Jumane, Jumana, Xoman,
Xumana, etc., frequently occur in the Spanish documents as vari-
ants of the name Jmnano. Indeed, in the Spanish sources Jumane
and Jumana occur much more frequently than Jumano, the form
which has been adopted by the Bureau of American Ethnology
and which I have followed for that reason. Juman, Xuman, Chu-
man, etc., are sometimes used for the tribe while the people are
referred to as Jumanes, Xumanes, Chomanes, etc. In the seven-
teenth century the name was probably pronounced Zhuman.
To show that during the decade between 1683 and 1693 the
Jumano lived in the general region of the Rio Grande, from
La Junta eastward, the evidence is ample. To go back a step, in
1675 Fernando del Bosque and Fathers Larios and San Buenaven-
tura found the Indians of the Xoman tribe at a place called Dacate
Mountain, a short distance north of the Rio Grande and east of
the Pecos.: While there is no certainty that these Xoman were
the Choman, or Jumano, known on other grounds to have been
near the Rio Grande at this time, yet there is a strong probability
that such was the case. We have already seen that the Jumano
chief, Juan Sabeata, claimed in 1683 to live near La Junta "with
many" of his tribe, and that part of the tribe were found in 1684
on the "Nueces" (Colorado) River. It is clear, moreover, that
Father Posadas regarded the Jumano to be living near the Rio
Grande when he wrote his "Ynforme" (about 1686). He states
that at La Junta Mendoza and L6pez "saw many Indians-Ju-
manas, Rayados, Oposmes, Polupames, Polaques, and others."2
After describing the Apache range over the great plains of western
Texas, he states that the home of the Jumano is south of the
'Autos of the expedition of Antonio Balcarcel Rivadeneyra y Sotomayor.
$"Ynforme," op. cit., 4. Vetancurt states that Father Lopez and his com-
panions found at La Junta "a great multitude of Xumanas and Tejas;
they decided to return with better preparations and sufficient ministers.
. Some friars returned with the intention of going among the
Xumanas and Texas." (Ordnica, pp. 96-97). As a matter of fact,
neither L6pez nor Mendoza reported a great multitude of Xumanas at this
point, nor did the ministers return to El Paso before going to the Nueces
River. Two Texas messengers were reported at La Junta by Sabeata.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/80/: accessed June 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.