The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 76
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76 Texas Historical Association Quarterly
Apache, on the Nueces River, but that they are now living near
the Rio Grande, having been forced back by the Apache.1
The same general impression as to the home of the Jumano at
this time is given by other and entirely distinct groups of sources.
The French of La Salle's party learned in eastern Texas of the
Jumano as a tribe living to the southwest of their route. When
among the Teao, of the lower Colorado, country, in 1687, La Salle
was informed that some members of this tribe had gone to the
southwest or west and entered into relations with the Chouman
tribe, friends of the Spaniards and the Cenis (Hasinai).2 That
the Chouman were unquestionably the Jumano, we shall presently
see. Father Douay reported the Chouman tribe to be living only
two days from the Spanish settlements.3 And while among the
Cadodacho Delisle learned of the Chouman as a tribe in the south-
west and friends of his hosts.4 In 1688 we again hear, through
Spanish sources, of Jumano near the Rio Grande, on the border
of Coahuila. During the uprising in that year of the Colorado,
Cabezas, Tobozos, and others, the leader of the outbreak, "Don
Dieguillo," sent a messenger to the Teocodames (Terocodames),
"Jumanas," and others, to get them to join the revolt." It is well
known that the Terocodame tribe lived at this time near the Rio
Grande about Eagle Pass, and it is quite probable that the Jumanas
now mentioned with the Terocodame were the same as the Xoman
seen with them north of the river in 1675. In the same year,
1688, Capt. Diego Ram6n sent a messenger across the Rio Grande
to call the "Jumanes" and other nations to the mission of Nada-
1"From east to west on the southern border this Apache nation is con-
tiguous with the following nations: after the Tejas, with the nation of
the Aijados [and then] with the nation of the Cuitoas and of the Escan-
jaquez, in a district of fifty leagues; and these nations being those stated
on the river of the Noezes, the Apache nation [now] keeps them driven
back to the Rio del Norte, a district of a hundred leagues, or a little less;
and after these nations, [i. e., westward] follows that of the Jumanas,
with the rest that are mentioned at the junction of the Rio del Norte and
the Conchos; and [the Apache] keep these also driven back in this said
place, and dispossessed of the Noezes river." "Ynforme," 11-13.
2Joutel, "Relation," in Margry, Dgcouvertes et Etablissements, etc.,
'French, Hist. Coll. La. (1852), 203-205.
'Margry, op. cit., III, 410.
""Declaraci6n" of General Alonso de Le6n, May 17, 1788. Portillo,
Apuntes para la Historia Antigua Coahuila y Tejas, 222.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/81/: accessed June 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.