The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 77
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The Jumano Indians, 1650-1771 77
dores. The messenger reported that he went to where the Jumanes
were, and was told by them that a short time before they had
joined some Frenchmen and Texas Indians who had come by on
a campaign against the Apache." The reference is probably to
the campaign made by some of the La Salle party with the T6xas.
In 1689, when Alonso de Le6n was on his way from Monclova to
Matagorda Bay, he encountered five leagues south of the Rio
Grande, in the neighborhood of Eagle Pass, a rancheria of Jumenes
and others.2 They may have been the same as the Jumanes pre-
viously reported in that region.
If these references to the Xoman, Jumanes, and Jumenes on
the borders of Coahuila between 1675 and 1689, taken together
with the account of the Mendoza expedition, are not conclusive,
in the records of 1691 we find evidence which removes all uncer-
tainty in the matter. In June of that year, while Teran and
Massanet were at the San Antonio, a Payaya chief offered to guide
them eastward to "the Rancheria of the Chomanes."3 Near the
Guadalupe they found the rancheria, which was a temporary one
occupied during the buffalo hunt. There was our old friend, Juan
Sabeata, "con su gente y nacion de Yndios Chomas," the chief of
the Cantonas, "who brought his people with the Chomanes"; the
Cibolas, the Caynaaya, and the Catqueza.4 Massanet gave the
number in the rancheria as 3000 and Teran as 2000. The autos
of the Teran expedition give the number of the "Xumanas" met
here as 300 warriors, and of the whole rancheria as 900 warriors.5
The same document repeatedly speaks of them as the "nacion
Xumano (or Xumana) del rio del norte y Salado"-the Xumano
tribe of the rivers del Norte and Salado (or Pecos). More explicit
is Massanet's statement, which also establishes the identity of the
different name forms given heretofore, and beyond doubt fixes the
home of the Jumano at this period on the Rio Grande. It must
be remembered that he wrote after a long conference with Juan
1"Declaraci6n del Indio Diego de Le6n," ibid., 237.
2De Le6n, "Derrotero," in Mem. de Nueva Espaa, XXVII, 2
$Massanet, "Diario," in Mem. de Nueva Espana, XXVII, 96.
4Massanet, ibid., 97-102. Tertan, in his "Descripci6n Diaria," states that
on the bank of the Guadalupe "halle las Naciones Jumana, Cibula, Cas-
queza, Cantons," ibid., 28-29.
Autos of the Teran expedition, MS. 109, 110, 112, 126, 127, 129.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/82/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.