The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 80
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80 Texas Historical Association Quarterly
IV. BETWEEN 1716 AND 1750: THE JUMANO IN ALLIANCE WITH
When the Spaniards again occupied Texas, in 1716, they found
that a noteworthy change had taken place, namely, that the Jumano
had become allies of the Apache and enemies of the Spaniards and
of the T6xas, in which capacity they were thereafter frequently
mentioned. Thus, while in eastern Texas in 1716, Domingo Ram6n
wrote of "finding ourselves surrounded on the north by the ene-
mies of los Texas, namely, the Apaches, Jumanes, Chanas," and
others.' It is not necessary to suppose that the Jumanes whom
he mentions were living far to the north, though they may have
been. The Apaches were at this time occupying most of western
Texas, and the Chanes River was the present Llano. In 1718
an Indian named Juanillo "of the Jumana nation" was reported
at San Juan Bautista to have been instrumental in causing a de-
fection among the Indians of the missions on the Rio Grande
which involved a threat to destroy the Spaniards.2 Again, an item
of evidence recorded in 1724 shows not only the friendliness be-
tween the Apache and the Jumano, but also that in 1721 the
latter lived, as formerly, in the region of the Conchos and Rio
del Norte.3 In 1721 the MarquBs de Aguayo, when crossing Texas,
named a small stream east of the Brazos the "Arroyo de los
Jumanes," but the circumstance prompting him to do so does not
Documents written during the serious Apache troubles at San
Antonio between 1731 and 1733 make it still plainer that
Jumano were frequently in Texas and were there regularly re-
1Ram6n, "Representaci6n," in Mem. de Nueva Espalca, XXVII, 160.
'Declaration of Indian Joseph, who came from eastern Texas with a
French courier. MS. in the Archivo General y Publico, Mexico. It seems
that the revolting, or rather the absconding, Indians were those of
Rancheria Grande, in central Texas.
8In 1724 an Indian named Ger6nimo, a native of ISanta Elena, Nueva
Viscaya, who came to San Juan Bautista with some Apache, declared that
about three years before he had been captured on the Conchos River by
the Tobosos, and had lived for a year "among the Tovosos and Jumanes,"
when he was purchased by some Apache, among whom he had lived two
years. He also declared that when, a short time before his deposition was
made, the Apaches were planning to destroy San Antonio, a peace mes-
sage from San Antonio, Texas, reached the Apache among whom he was
living and was read by "two Religious who go (andan) among them with
the Juman nation." ("Declaracian del Indio Ger6nimo," 1724. MS.)
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/85/: accessed October 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.