The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 81
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The Jumano Indians, 1650-1771
garded as allies of the Apaches and enemies of the Spaniards.
Thus, in 1731 some arrows left by Indians in a fight at San
Antonio were declared by an Apache captive to have belonged to
"Apaches, Pelones, and Jumanes; that all three are extremely pop-
ulous and very warlike, and, confident of their great numbers, have
annihilated and terrorized all the nations living in these parts, and
admit no others to their friendship."' A year later it was declared
in a junta de guerra at San Antonio that in the campaign made
by Bustillo against the Apaches in 1732 a rancheria which was
attacked seventy leagues northwest of San Antonio, in the region
of San Saba, was composed of four tribes, Apache, Ypanda (Pe-
lon?) Yxande, and Chenti. Captives taken declared that the
major portion of the tribes had been at the time further west and
north, "but not very distant," "that the people who were in said
rancheria were only a small portion of each nation, there not being
in said Rancheria any Indians of the Jumanes Nation, which is
very numerous and which we know joins with that of the Apaches
to come and make war on us." Since the fight was near the San
Saba River,' this would put the Jumano in the general region of
their old haunts on the "Nueces" River, i. e., the upper Colorado.2
Again, in a letter of November 26, 1732, to Almazan, the viceroy
referred to the Apache, Xumane, and Pelon (Lipan?) as "com-
mon enemies of this province."3 Yet again, in the residencia of
Bustillo y Zevallos, governor of Texas, at San Antonio in 1734, a
witness declared that "he had not heard that during the adminis-
tration of Bustillo the peaceful tribes had "revolted or allied to
do damage to the Jurisdiction with the Apaches, Pelones, Jumanas.
Chenttis, or any others who insult These Lands."4
Thus, there is plenty of evidence to show that the Jumano of
southern Texas, who. in the seventeenth century had been bitter
but losing enemies of the Apache, have come in the second and
third decades of the eighteenth century to be regarded in Texas
as the regular allies of the Apache, and that during this period
lAlmazin to the viceroy, B6xar, December 1, 1731, in "Autos sobre las
providencias," etc., 5.
=Ibid., 18, 29.
'Testimony of Antonio de los Santos, August 21, 1734. Autos of the
residencia, MS. in the B6xar Archives.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/86/: accessed June 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.