The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 82
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82 Texas Historical Association Quarterly
they are still to be found in their old haunts both along the Rio
Grande and in central Texas.
And now the Jumano history takes on still a different phase.
They come to be regarded not merely as allies of the Apache, but
as a division of the Apache, and are called "los Apaches Jumanes."
The first expression of this view that has come to the writer's
notice is that given in 1733 by Joseph de Urrutia, then captain
at San Antonio. Writing on July 4 of that year, he told of his
former campaigns with the Pelones (Lipan ?) and Jumnane, "who,
it appears, have now incorporated themselves in the said Apaches,
which to me is very strange, because in that time (1693-1700),
when I lived among them, they were declared enemies.'" This
affiliation of the Jumano is best reflected in the discussion which
occurred in 1746 relative to the suppression of certain garrisons
in Nuevo Le6n and the transference of the presidio of Sacramento,
in northern Coahuila, to the San Xavier River of Texas. One of
the principal arguments per contra was based on the need of de-
fending the provinces of Coahuila and Nueva Le6n against the
Toboso and the "Apaches Jumanes," of the Rio Grande. Bustillo
y Zevallos, ex-governor of Texas, wrote on May 28, 1746: "The
extinction of the garrisons of Boca de Leones and Serralvo, in the
New Kingdom of Le6n, does not seem to me the safest distribu-
tion .. . being so useful and so constantly occupied with the
continual war, both of the rebellious Indians of its vast jurisdic-
tion, as well as of those who. enter from la Nueva Vizcaya, and of
the Apaches Jumanes, who, crossing the deserts of the province of
Coahuila, pass to the Kingdom and to the neighborhood of Sal-
tillo." With respect to Coahuila, he said: "The arms of the cap-
ital of this province, always in the hands of the soldiers, aided by
those of El Sacramento, restrain the Nations of Apaches Jumanes,
who are immediately on the other side of the Rio Grande,2 and at
times on this side. With respect to, this, the Governor of the
province, as a result of a representation made to him by the Cap-
tains of El Sacramento, Rio Grande, and the citizens, a few days
ago, made the same representation (la hizo) to this Superior Gov-
'MS. in the Archivo General y Publico, Mexico. (B. MS. Misc.) This
statement seems to shed important light on Lipan history also.
2The italics are mine.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/87/: accessed June 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.