The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 83
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The Jumano Indians, 1650-1771 83
ernment, begging license to make a Campaign against them, since
the hostilities are continuous on the part of the latter (estos) and
of the Tobosos, who, with this name, pass from la Viscaya, as
While the above discussion illustrates the way in which in Texas
and Coahuila the Jumano had come to be regarded as Apache,
being called "Apaches Jumanes," it makes it clear also that in
1746 they were habitually found in the region of the Rio Grande,
on the borders of Coahuila and Nueva Viscaya, and that they some-
times made raids into Nuevo Leon.
V. THE JUMANO AT WAR WITH TIHE TAOVAYAS, 1771
A still different turn is given to Jumano history when, as it ap.-
pears, the Jumano of the Apache alliance engage in bitter warfare
with a people of northern Texas called by the same name. As has
already been stated, it is now well known that from 1750 forward
the Taovayas (Taw6hash) of the Red River country were by the
Spaniards of New Mexica frequently called Jumanes (Jumano),2
that they were bitterly hostile to the Apache, and frequently, if not
customarily, allied with the bitterest enemy of the Apache, the Co-
manche. If the Taovayas in 1750 embraced all the Jumano, a
fundamental change, both of affiliation and location, must have
come over those found near the Rio Grande in 1.746 and at that
time called Apaches Jumanes. It is conceivable that such a
change might possibly have occurred; but this seems hardly prob-
able, especially in view of evidence recorded in 1771.
The evidence alluded to is as follows: About November, 1771,
Alexo. de la Garza Falc6n wrote to the viceroy from the presidio
of San Saba (recently transferred to Villa Nueva de San Fer-
nando)3 of the need of more soldiers there, in view of the "im-
minent danger in which it now stands of being attacked by the
barbarous, hostile, nations of Indians, Apaches, Farones, Natag6s,
1Memorial of Bustillo y Zevallos, May 28, 1746, MS.
2Bolton, in Handbook; of American Indians, II, 705; Hodge, "The Jumano
'Near modern Eagle Pass. I am indebted to Mr. W. E. Dunn for aid
in the location of the presidio of San Saba at this time. The later
movements of that establishment are very hard to trace, and have never
been successfully followed until recently, when Mr. Dunn made an ex-
haustive study of the subject.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/88/: accessed April 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.