The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912 Page: 84
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Texas Historical Association Quarterly
Mescaleros, Jumanes, Lipanes, and other frontier nations allied
with them, both on account of the continual robberies and mur-
ders which they commit [in] this neighborhood, and because there
are now at a distance of ten leagues from this Presidio about
3,000 of said nations, and others not known, who, on the occasion of
having come out victorious from an encounter which they had
with the Comanches and Taguaias [Taovayas, Jumano], gathered
to celebrate the victory and eat some of the Comanche and
Taguaas prisoners whom they captured."'
If this experienced frontier officer, stationed at a fort on the
edge of the Apacherfa, and which was designed originally to with-
stand the attacks of the Comanche and the Taovayas, knew the In-
dian situation, and did not by mere accident include the Jumano in
his enumeration, we have in 1771 a people called Jumano celebrat-
ing a recent victory over other people called Jumano. Such an in-
advertence of Falc6n's part would seem hardly likely to occur, in
view of the conditions which had called the presidio of San Saba
into existence. Yet the fact that aside from this one, no reference
to Jumano in Texas other than the Taovayas has been noted later
than 1750, leads one to wonder if some such error was not made by
the officer. But, if this statement was correct, it is clear that not
all of the Jumano had been absorbed by the Wichita in 1771, and
that at that date there were two people by the same name at war
with each other.2
Here I leave the matter without offering a solution of this point,
or of several others which will now inevitably be raised. Enough
has been said to show that the Jumano were by no means a lost
tribe in the eighteenth century; that from 1650 (at least, and prob-
ably from 1632, as well as much earlier) they were frequently
encountered in west-central and southern Texas; and that unless
there were distinct divisions whose separate histories have not been
traced, they more than once changed their relations with the
Apache, whose enemies they have usually if not always been
1MS. in the Archivo General, Mexico.
2A corollary to this would be the conclusion that "Taovayas" can not
be taken as synonymous with "Jumano" wherever it is found.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 15, July 1911 - April, 1912, periodical, 1912; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101056/m1/89/: accessed August 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.