The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 5
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The Spanish Occupation of Texas, 1519-1690
principal one, and for this reason until 1685 western Texas was
much better known than the southern portion, lying nearer Mex-
ico, or than the eastern portion, commonly regarded as "old"
The Coronado expedition.-Just before the Moscoso party en-
tered northeastern Texas, another band, led by Coronado, entered
its northwestern border. Coronado had come, by way of the
Pacific Slope, to New Mexico in search of the Seven Cities of
Cibola. Disappointed at what he found, and hearing while in the
Rio Grande valley of a great kingdom called Quivira to the north-
east, he set out in search of it across the Llanos del Cibolo. (Buf-
falo Plains), going, it is believed, from the upper Pecos River south-
eastward to the upper Colorado, thence north across the Brazos,
Red, Canadian and Arkansas rivers, eastward into central Kansas,
and directly back to the Pecos. In the course of the expedition,
northwestern Texas was traversed in four distinct paths, and the
Spaniards learned of the Llanos del Cibolo and of the wandering
tribes of Plains Indians who followed the buffalo for subsistence.1
Incidental crossing of southwestern Texas.-After the Coronado
expedition interest in our Southwest lagged for nearly four de-
cades, when the Spaniards again gave it their attention, this time
approaching it by way of the central Mexican plateau, across what
is now northern Chihuahua and up the Rio Grande or the Pecos.
In the course of the renewed exploration and the colonization of
Now Mexico, in the last two decades of the sixteenth century, sev-
eral expeditions incidentally crossed the western extremity of
Texas, between the Pecos and the Rio Grande. Of these expedi-
tions the ones best known are those made by Father Rodriguez in
1581, Espejo in 1582, Castaiio de Sosa in 1590, Bonilla and
Humalia about 1595, and Juan de Ofiate, the colonizer of New
Mexico, in 1598.2 All this region was then a part of New Mex-
ico, and the exploration of it was made chiefly incident to the
development and exploitation of the more interesting Pueblo region
in the upper Rio Grande valley.
'Winship, George Parker, The Coronado Expedition; Castafieda, Narra-
tive of the Expedition of Coronado, edited by Hodge, in Spanish Emplorers
in the Southern United States, 1528-1543. The route, as outlined above, is
that marked out by Hodge, op. cit., map.
'Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, 74-128; De Le6n, Historia de Nuevo
Le6n, 92-95; Niel, Apuntamientos, 91-92.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/11/: accessed February 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.