The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 8
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
New Mexico, in central Texas on the Colorado, in southeastern
Texas, on the Arkansas, and on the Red.' This ubiquity of the
Jumanos is to be explained in part, no doubt, by the migration
of the tribe to and from the buffalo plains at different seasons of
the year; but it seems equally clear that there were at least two
distinct divisions of people known to the Spaniards by the same
name. The division of particular interest here is the one which,
in the seventeenth century, frequented or lived upon the buffalo
plains of west-central Texas and was often visited there by the
Spaniards of New Mexico for the purposes indicated.
The first recorded journey to these eastern Jumanos was made
in 1629.2 Previous to that time Father Juan de Salas, of Isleta
(old Isleta, near the present Albuquerque) had worked among the
Tompiros and Salineros in eastern New Mexico and had come in
contact with Jumano living east of these tribes and hostile to
them.3 In the year mentioned, the Jumano sent a delegation to
Isleta to repeat a request previously made that he go with them
to. their homes to minister to their people. On being asked why
they desired missionaries, they told the story, now a classic in the
lore.of the Southwest, of the miraculous conversion of their tribes
by a beautiful woman wearing the garb of a nun, and later iden-
tified as Mother Maria de Agreda, abbess of a famous convent in
Spain, who declared that she had converted these tribes during a
visit to America "in ecstacy."'
'For a summary of the history of the Jumanos, see Hodge, "The Jumano
Indians," in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society at the
Semi-Annual Meeting, April, 1910; a treatment of special phases of the
subject, suggested by Hodge's paper, is contained in Bolton, "The Jumano
Indians in Texas, 1650-1771," in TuE QUARTERLY, XV, 66-84.
'In 1582 Espejo had encountered Jumano living on the Rio Grande, and
during the last years of the sixteenth century Jumano were under instruc-
tion by the missionaries in eastern New Mexico. Hodge, op. cit.
'Benavides, Memorial, 1630; Vetancur, Chr6nica de la Provincia del
Santo Evangelio (1697), 96.
'For the foundation of the story of the miraculous conversion of the
Jumano, see Benavides, Memorial, in Land of Sunshine, xiv, 139, and
Vetancur, Chr6nica de la Provincia del Santo Evangelio (1697), 96. Sec-
ondary accounts are in Shea, The Catholic Church in America, I, 195-198,
and Schmidt, "Ven. Maria Jesus de Agreda: a Correction," in TIIE QUAR-
TERLY, I, 121-124. For references to the conversion of the Texas by this
mysterious person, see the letter of De Le6n, quoted on page 25; and
Manzanet, Carta, translated by Lilia M. Casis, in THE QUARTERLY, II, 311.
Manzanet (Massanet) there states that while at the village of the Nabe-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/14/: accessed September 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.