The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 10
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
Diego del Castillo visited the Jumanos on the Nueces and re-
mained with them six months. While there two things of greatest
interest occurred. The first was the gathering of a large quantity
of shells (conchos) from the river, which, on being burned, dis-
closed pearls. The other was the approach of a portion of the
party, after passing fifty leagues beyond the Jumano through the
country of the Cuitaos, Escanjaques, and Aijados, to the borders
of a people called "Tejas." "They did not enter their territory,"
our chronicler tells us, "as they learned that it was very large and
contained many people," but a "lieutenant" of the Tejas "king"
went to see Castillo. This, so far as I know, is the first informa-
tion acquired by the Spaniards unquestionably concerning the peo-
ple from whom Texas got its name.'
The arrival of Martin and Castillo at Santa FP with pearls, at
a time when the pearls of California were proving to. be a dis-
appointment, now created a new interest in central Texas. The
samples were sent to the viceroy in Mexico, who at once ordered
another expedition to the Nueces. It was made in 1654 by Diego
de Guadalajara, with thirty soldiers, among whom was Juan Do-
mingucz de Mendoza, thirty years later the leader of a more im-
portant expedition to the same place. Guadalajara found the
Jumano in the same region where they had been encountered in
1632 and 1650. Thirty leagues farther on they had a hard fight
with the Cuitaos, of whom they killed many, besides taking two
hundred prisoners and rich spoils in the way of buckskins, elk-
skins, and buffalo hides. Still another interest in the country had
arisen-that of commerce in peltry.2
No other specific expedition to the Jumano is recorded till that
of Juan Dominguez de Mendoza, in 1684, the records of which
settle all doubt as to the location of the tribe to whom these visits
were directed. But in the interim many journeys seem to have
been made to them for the purpose of trade, evidence of which has
'Posadas, Informe; Declaration of Juan Sabeata, October 20, 1683. There
is no good reason for thinking that Yejo, the Indian referred to in Cas-
tafieda's narrative of Guzman's exploring .activities on the west coast of
Mexico, or the Teyas met by Coronado ion the buffalo plains, were of the
Texas group found in the later seventeenth century east of the Trinity
River. See Winship, The Coronado Evpedition, 472-473; Wooten (editor),
Comprehensive History of Texas, I, 8.
2Posadas, Informe, 1686.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/16/: accessed February 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.