The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 12
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
of the most promising mineral deposits, by 1565 conquests were
extended as far as Parras, Saltillo, and perhaps Monterrey.
Advance was now made again along the Gulf plain. In 1576
Luis de Carabajal pursued Indians into the country north of
Panuco, and in 1579 was commissioned to conquer and settle it.
The province assigned to him was called Nuevo Le6n, and was
to extend two hundred leagues north from Panuco, a jurisdiction
reaching nearly or quite to the mouth of the Colorado River. For
a few years Carabajal's headquarters were at Panuco, but in (or
by) 1583 he went inland with a colony, opened the mines of San
Gregorio, and founded there the city of Le6n, now Cerralvo. This
place, situated about one hundred fifty miles from the coast and
only some forty from the Rio Grande (near modern Mier), was
for a long time the principal settlement and the capital of the
province, and was for a century, with some intervals, the north-
ernmost outpost on the Rio Grande frontier. Shortly after found-
ing Le6n, Carabajal established the villa of San Luis, farther
south, which in 1596 became or was succeeded by the villa of Mon-
terrey. Subsequently various intermediate points were occupied.1
Temporarily a more northerly outpost than Le6n was estab-
lished. Hearing of rich mineral deposits toward the northwest, in
the district called Coahuila, about 1590 Carabajal took from Sal-
tillo supplies and a colony, opened mines, and founded the villa
of Almaden where Monclova now stands. While there he was
arrested by the Inquisition on the charge of Judaism and thrown
into prison in Mexico, where he died. A few months after Cara-
bajal's arrest, Castaiio de Sosa, left in charge of the colony,
abandoned the place and led the settlers off to attempt the con-
quest of New Mexico, crossing the Rio Grande at the Pecos and
following that stream to the Pueblo region.2 In 1603 and again
in 1644 Almad6n was temporarily reoccupied, but without success,
'This summary of the early history of Nuevo Le6n is based mainly on
Le6n, Alonso, Historia de Nuevo Le6 (Mexico, 1909); Portillo, Est6ban
L., Apuntes para la Historia Antiqua de Coahuila y Texas (Satillo, 1888);
Gonzalez, E. J., Lecciones Orales de Historia de Nuevo Le6n (Monterey,
1887); Gonzalez, E. J., Colecci6n de Noticias y Documentos para la His-
toria del Estado de Nuevo Le6S (Monterey, 1885); Prieto, Alejandro,
Historia, Geografica y Estadistica del Estado de Tamaulipas (Mexico,
'Leon, 91-95; Bancroft, North Mexican States, I, 100-107. Bancroft
could not determine the location of Almad6n, but this point is now per-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/18/: accessed September 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.