The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 16
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
were soon established in the Coahuila district, one for each of the
four groups or confederacies, which embraced tribes to the north
as well as to the south of the Rio Grande.'
News of the Texas.-Now the Texas arose above the Coahuila
horizon, just as they had appeared above that of New Mexico a
quarter of a century before. In 1676 the Bishop. of Guadalajara
visited Coahuila, and one of the reasons which he gave in his
report for favoring the four missions recommended by Bosque was
the opportunity which they would afford to reach and convert a
more important people beyond, the Texas, of whom he gives a
most interesting account. "Coahuila," he says,
has as a neighbor on the north, inclining somewhat to the east,
a populous nation of people, and so extensive that those who give
detailed reports of them do, not know where it ends. These [who
give the reports] are many, through having communicated with
the people of that nation, which they call Texas, and who, they
maintain, live under an organized government (en policia), con-
gregated in their pueblos, and governed by a casique who is named
by the Great Lord, as they call the one who rules them all, and
who, they say, resides in the interior. They have houses made of
wood, cultivate the soil, plant maize and other crops, wear clothes,
and punish misdemeanors, especially theft. The Coahuiles do not
give more detailed reports of the Texas because, they say, they -are
allowed to, go only to the first pueblos of the border, since the
Great Lord of the Texas does not permit foreign nations to enter
the interior of his country. There are many of these Coahuiles
who give these reports, and who say that they got them through
having aided the Texas in their wars against the Pauit, another
very warlike nation. The Coahuiles once pacified, the Spaniards
can reach the land of the Texas without touching the country of
This account of the Texas is of special interest as being the earliest
extant, so, far as is known, although, as we have seen, reports of
IThe principal source for the history of the developments described
above is a collection of documents entitled "Autos de la conquista de la
Prova. heha en este ano por D. Antonio Balcarcel," etc. Some of them
are printed in Portillo, Apuntes. They were used by me in the original
in the archives of Mexico.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/22/: accessed August 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.