The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 17
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The Spanish Occupation of Texas, 1519-1690
jective points of the Spaniards both of New Mexico and Coahuila
was thenceforth the Kingdom of the Texas.1
Surmary.-By 1676 some advance had been made into Texas
from all directions. Sixteenth century explorers coming by way
of the Gulf, Florida, and New Mexico had run its coasts and
traversed its southern,, northern, and western borders. In the
seventeenth century the continued search for Gran Quivira had led
to further explorations in the west and north; frequent visits to
the Jumano country had made better known the country between
Santa F6 and the middle Colorado, while some beginnings had
been made of missionary work and settlement in the Rio Grande
valley between El Paso and the mouth of the Conchos River.2 In
addition to, interest in Quivira, the Aixados, the Jumanos, the
pearls of the Nueces (Colorado), and trade in peltry and cap-
tives on the plains, there had arisen a desire to reach another
land reputed to be rich but as yet untrod, the Great Kingdom of
the Texas. From the south, meanwhile, the frontier had slowly
expanded across the lower Rio Grande through the search for the
Cerro de la Plata, pursuit of hostile Indians, efforts to establish
communication with Florida, and missionary work among the
tribes of the Coahuila frontier. In the pursuit of this last object,
interest was aroused, here as in New Mexico, in the Texas Indians.
It is clear that all these forces were leading slowly but surely
to the occupation of central and eastern Texas, even in the absence
of the stimulus of foreign aggression. But the old interests were
now all quickened by rumors of foreign encroachment, and thence-
forth the various lines of advance rapidly converged and led to, the
settlement of the country beyond the Trinity. At the same time
the El Paso district, at the other extreme of Texas, became defi-
nitely settled as a result of a counter movement from New Mexico.
III. THE CONVERGENCE OF THE LINES
1. Pe~alosa and Plans to Occupy the Bay of Espiritu Santo
In 1678 news was received at the Spanish court that Pefialosa,
the discredited governor of New Mexico already mentioned, had
1"Informe que hizo el Yllmo Senor Don Manuel Fernz. de Sta Cruz Abpo
de Guadalaxa. a el Yllmo, y exmo Senor Maestro Don Fr. Payo de Rivera,
Arzobispo de Mexico. . . . dando Relasion de las Tierras de Coahuila,"
etc., 1676. MS. in the archive of the Bishopric of Linares.
"On the past point see p. 19.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/23/: accessed August 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.