The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913 Page: 68
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
continued by England; to the search for the Northwest passage
conducted by England not only from the Atlantic but from the
Pacific Ocean; to the intimate knowledge of the Pacific Coast that
had been acquired, on the one hand by Lord Anson, and on the
other by the Dutch coming from the East Indies.
The decision having been made, the visitador-general, Don
Joseph Galvez, took charge of despatching the California expedi-
tion of which Don Gaspar de Portola was appointed commander.
The force at Portola's disposal was divided into four parts-two
going by land and two by sea. The divisions assembled at San
Diego, and, on the 14th of June, set out from that place in search
of the port of Monterey. The expedition reached San Francisco
Bay in the first days of November, having been unable to identify
Monterey from the descriptions of Vizcaino and Gonzalez Cabrera
Bueno. It was not, therefore, until the month of June, 1770,
that a post was established at the latter port.
The founding of presidios and missions at San Diego and Mon-
terey did not wholly relieve the anxiety of the authorities in Mex-
ico, and, even before the additional explorations of the coast dur-
ing which Juan Manuel de Ayala sailed the San Carlos into San
Francisco Bay in 1775, it was considered necessary to send out a
ship to investigate the Russian settlements to the north. Accord-
ingly Juan P6rez, in 1774, made a voyage in the Santiago to 540
40', the southern extremity of Alaska. This was the first of a
very notable series of exploring expeditions made with the pur-
pose of validating the Spanish claims to the entire coast. In
1775, Heceta and Bodega; in 1779, Arteaga and Bodega; in 1788,
Martinez and Haro; in 1790, Elisa, Fidalgo, and Quimper, com-
manded ships that reached the Alaska coast. The years 1789 and
1790 were full of activity on account of the Nootka Sound con-
troversy; but before the actual conclusion of the incident, which
terminated Spain's interests north of California, Alejandro Mala-
spina, with the Descubierta and Atrevida, had visited Nootka in
1791 during his voyage round the world, while Galiano and
Valdes, in the Sutil and Meaicana, made the last, and the best
known, of these expeditions in 1792.
As a result of these voyages Spain is entitled to the honor of
having made the first explorations of the Pacific Coast as far
north, at least, as Queen Charlotte Island. Owing, unfortunately,
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913, periodical, 1913; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/m1/74/: accessed August 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.