The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 19, July 1915 - April, 1916 Page: 371
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History of the Cattle Industry in the Southwest
and forests, but the rancher finds it to his interest to provide
shelter during the winter in the high elevations.
Cattle are not native to the United States. They were brought
into what is now the southwestern portion of the United States
by the Spaniards3 as early as the Coronado expedition in 1540.
The first Spanish settlement in the Southwest was in New Mexico.
Sheep were introduced and cattle were raised by the inhabitants
of the colony before the revolt of the Indians in 1680.4 The
cattle ran at will and wandered over large areas. Owing to the
higher state of civilization of the Indians, the missions never
attained the importance as industrial training schools here that
they reached in other colonies. The industries were carried on
by the settlers and the Indians who engaged chiefly in agriculture,
stock-raising, and barter."
In the later seventeenth century the energetic Jesuit missionary,
Father Kino, introduced stock-raising into Arizona. In connec-
tion with missionary work he established ranches in the valleys of
the Magdalena, the Altar, the San Pedro and the Santa Cruz
Rivers. The labor was always performed by the Indians. In
1695 they revolted and drove off the cattle, but the work was re-
established and throve until Kino's death, in 1711, after which
little progress was made before 1731. In 1767 the Jesuits were
expelled, and the work was taken up the following year by the
Franciscans. From 1790 to 1820 was a period of prosperity in
Arizona. The Apaches were peaceful, the missions improved their
industries, and ranches and haciendas were built in the region
extending southeast and southwest from Tucson.6 Under the
Mexican rule, the friars remained loyal to Spain and were expelled
in 1827.7 Indians now raided the stock thus deserted. When the
forty-niners passed through Arizona they found the Pima Indians
raising cattle and using oxen for farm work.
Cattle were early taken into Texas. Bancroft notes that "In the
spring of 1714, Louis de St. Denis went to the country of the Tejas,
"House ED. Does., 29 Cong., 2 sess., XV, no. 107, p. 294.
'Hackett, Charles Wilson, "The Retreat of the Spaniards from New
Mexico in 1680, and the Beginnings of El Paso," TxE QUARTERLY, XVI,
'Hamilton, Patrick, Resources of Arizona, 375.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 19, July 1915 - April, 1916, periodical, 1916; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101067/m1/398/: accessed September 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.