The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 20, July 1916 - April, 1917 Page: 7
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History of the Cattle Industry in the Southwest 7
$59,453.66 in 1902.17 But this was accompanied by an increase
in the school fund revenue, which grew from $170,471.41 in 1895
to $457,656.85 in 1902.18
Mr. Frederick V. Coville of the United States Department of
Agriculture saw eleven advantages from the Texan system of
leasing. (1) Stock owners know upon what they can depend
for pasture. They have a. definite basis. (2) This is an in-
centive to conserve the grasses. (3) rThe cost of rounding up
for branding and market is much less when the animals are to
be found in a definite district. (4) It encourages supplemen-
tary forage, by the use of dry land forage crops, and gives fifty
per cent greater carrying capacity to the range. (5) The ranch-
man has a chance to save his cattle from storms or starvation in
case of prolonged drought. (6) Land far from water can be
utilized because the lessee will construct windmills and reservoirs
and the energy of the cattle is saved by not having so far to go
for water. (7) Certain pastures can be saved for winter forage.
(8) The raiser can produce a better breed of cattle, for the par-
entage of all animals can be known. (9) The percentage of
increase of breeding is much larger, for the date of birth of the
calves can be controlled so that the cows are strong enough to
survive the shock of calving and to suckle the calves. Calving
should not precede the first of April. (10) Cattle stealing is
much reduced. The small owner who could have little or no
help to hunt up cattle in open range was much tempted to brand
the cattle of others. (11) Violence is reduced.'9
In the remainder of the great cattle raising district the land
belonged to the national government, which made the problem
more difficult, for national legislation is enacted more slowly
than state. The government provided a homestead law in 1862,
but that did not meet the needs of the rangers which developed
later. The government has never recognized the fact that graz-
ing lands must be sold and occupied under different conditions
from arable lands.20 First-corers drove in their herds and took
"IHouse Report, 58 Cong., 3 sess., no. 189, p. 30.
20Iart, A. B., "The Disposition of Our Public Lands," in Quarterly
Journal of Economics, I, 182.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 20, July 1916 - April, 1917, periodical, 1917; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101070/m1/13/: accessed July 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.