The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 20, July 1916 - April, 1917 Page: 2
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
some were without. The Texas Traffic Association received one-
fifth of the income on Texan beef for their services and saw it
to be to their interest to have uniform regulations concerning
transportation of cattle from the East infected with pleuro-
pneumonia.1 Mexico was a breeding ground for Spanish Fever.
Many Mexican cattle were imported into the United States. For
protection Congress passed an Act, August 30, 1890, providing
for inspection of all cattle imported into the United States. The
chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry said that adequate in-
spection of large herds was impossible, and he advised that all
Mexican cattle be regarded as infected until Mexican authorities
define the infected district. Cattle from both countries strayed
across the Arizona border, and careful inspection here was sup-
posed to be the method of preventing revenue frauds.2
The other phase of the conflict was based on the meat pro-
ducing quality of the animal. Successful cattlemen wish to pro-
duce small bones, short horns, and much flesh. The Western
stockman saw the advantage and set about to improve his stock.
He had the Spanish cattle, which were of Moorish or Castilian
origin. They were slightly mixed in Texas with American and
French cattle. American or native cattle were a conglomeration
of cattle brought in from various places. Virginia had brought
cattle from the West Indies in 1624, the Dutch from Holland,
and New England from Old England in colonial times. Along
the Delaware, cattle had Swedish pedigrees. Different parts of
western Europe in the meanwhile had produced cattle for vari-
ous purposes. In developing the Devon and the Durham or short-
horn stock, the aim was beef, quick growth, small bones, and
very heavy hind quarters. The Dutch concentrated their energies
on an enormous and persistent flow of milk. The development
of a large amount of butter fat was the aim on the Island of
Jersey.3 Eastern growers had been gradually improving their
stock for many years. In 1783 three Baltimore gentlemen had
begun importing some of the best breeds. Colonel Sanders of
Kentucky imported twelve fine animals in 1817. Six of these
were shorthorns. Henry Clay, in the same year, imported two
'House Misc. Does., 50 Cong., 2 sess., no. 139, pp. 319-325.
"House Ex. Does., 54 Cong., 1 sess., no. 205, pp. 32-33.
'House Ex. Does., 39 Cong., 2 sess., vol. 15, no. 107, p. 295.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 20, July 1916 - April, 1917, periodical, 1917; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101070/m1/8/?rotate=90: accessed August 15, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.