The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 21, July 1917 - April, 1918 Page: 27
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The Tariff History of the Republic of Texas
section in the United States, and it could be presumed that he
would have a natural bent toward protection. And the attitude
of each president is the attitude of the section from which he
came with some modification due to the local circumstances.
Houston was from Tennessee, and he was not so certain with re-
gard to free trade, though he favored it ultimately; but he was
rather certain that a tariff was necessary for purposes of revenue,
and that it was more equitable and just than a direct tax.90
President Lamar was from Georgia, and he was strongly for free-
trade. He had been a member of the States' Rights Party in
Georgia during the strenuous struggles over the tariff in the
United States from 1828 to 1833, and during part of that time
he had edited a, newspaper advocating free-trade.19' It was not
strange that he should continue to advocate free-trade in Texas,
especially since that policy was supposed to assist in securing rec-
ognition. On account of the need of a tariff for revenue, how-
ever, he advised a continuation of the tariff, though in 1840 he
approved the free-trade tariff when it seemed that a direct tax
could be substituted."92 President ,Tones was from Massachusetts,
and he favored a tariff for revenue, with incidental p-rotection.3
All the presidents united in maintaining that the tariff was neces-
sary for revenue, and when irresponsible members of congress in-
sisted on its repeal, the responsibility which the president was
under of maintaining the existence of the government and a
semblance of credit abroad forced him into the support of a sys-
tem which, though unnatural for an agricultural community, was
necessary for the support of the government.
Aside from loans and paper money the actual sources of rev-
enue for the support of the government were customs duties,
direct taxes, sale of city lots, sale of land, and fines and forfeit-
ures. A comparison of returns from each of these sources will
show that the tariff was the foundation of the revenue through-
out the life of the Republic. The first report available for the
period from the beginning of the Republic to September 30, 1838,
gOoI-ouston's message to Congress, in Telegraph and Texas Register, De-
cember 29, 1841; veto message, Eighth Congress, House Journal, 465 et seq.
"oxProspectus of the Columbus Enquirer; Lamar Papers, 73.
"'ZLamar's message to Congress, Third Congress, House Journal, 180, 181.
'93Ninth Congress, House Journal, 29.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 21, July 1917 - April, 1918, periodical, 1918; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101073/m1/33/: accessed January 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.