The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920 Page: 21
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The Apache in the Southwest, 1846-1886
so generously given his southern neighbor. Indeed the Apache
welcomed the United States as an ally during the Mexican War,
for Mexico was their common foe. But the Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo wrought a great change; a change not at first recognized
by the Apache. By the terms of the treaty, the United States as-
sumed all responsibility for the protection of her newly acquired
Mexican citizens and also for the enforcement of good-behavior
by the lawless Apache, who was no more to be allowed to depredate
south of the international boundary.
General Kearny's treaties.-While on his hasty march of con-
quest, General Kearny held meetings with representatives of the
various tribes, including the Apaches, making treaties,--largely
verbal,-with them. By these treaties the Indians were bound to
submission and future loyalty, whereas the United States pledged
itself, through its authorized representatives, to furnish them full
protection against enemies internal and external. Scarcely had
Kearny turned his back on the newly sworn friends than the
Navajos, one tribe of the Apache family, began open depradations
upon their sometime foes. Colonel Doniphan was dispatched to
the Navajo country to secure the release of all prisoners and prop-
erty stolen from the inhabitants of New Mexico and to secure
adequate guarantee of future good conduct. The new treaty signed
was but one of a series continuing through the years 1846-1867.
Only the last one was worth the paper it was written on. Most
of them were not even ratified by the Senate but that mattered
not, for before that body had time to act the Navajos had already
proven the written word valueless. Colonel Doniphan did succeed
in leaving New Mexico before the Navajos again raided the settle-
ments. Then followed the Taos Revolt which was in turn followed
by a period of guerilla warfare in which the Apaches and Navajos
took active part. United States troops were stationed in the new
territory and to them was intrusted the public safety. During the
years that followed these troops saw much active service, especially
on short scouts and punitive expeditions against both Navajos and
Apaches. During the earlier years of United States occupation the
Navajos and Jicarillas were the ones most frequently in need of chas-
tisement. Santa Fe and the Rio Grande valley were a constant temp-
tation to the Navajo who quickly escaped from his raids into the
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920, periodical, 1919; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101075/m1/27/: accessed May 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.