The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920 Page: 24
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
ing to be. The Apaches began to see that if they would hold their
home in security they must be more wily than ever. But more
potent than these things in changing the Apache attitude toward
the citizens of the United States was the treatment that some of
them received at the hands of the troops. Their confidence in
the fair play and honesty of the United States received its first
In the spring of 1861 some Apaches stole a cow and a child from
the Mexican mistress of an American. Seventy-five men were
sent from Fort Buchanan to demand the return of the stolen prop-
erty. At Apache Pass, under protection of a white flag flying over
the tent of the commander, Cochise the head chief and five other
chiefs entered for a talk. Upon their stout denial of all knowl-
edge of the matter, the order was given to seize the chiefs. Cochise
slit the tent with his knife and effected his own escape but the
captive chiefs were hung in retaliation for the fighting that was
begun immediately by the Chiricahuas Apaches. Years of blood-
shed were the fruit of that act of American treachery.
The Civil War.-Almost immediately too, the Civil War broke
out and the troops were removed from Arizona. This increased
the Apache belief in the efficacy of their punishment of the United
States troops and led to a general devastation of the whole region.
Thus the close of the Civil War found all of the Apache tribes ex-
cept the Jicarillas openly hostile. The Indians of the Gila country
were united in hostility against the whites, planning their ex-
Extermination attempted.-Because the situation was serious and
because of lack of federal sanction for any plan suggested for the
meeting of the situation, those in authority fell back upon the more
stringent form of police duty which was in effect that of extermina-
tion. With this extreme measure General Carleton, then com-
manding New Mexico, seemed in full accord.
The Expedition against the Mescaleros.-The Mescaleros were
the first to feel the force of the blow. An expedition was started
against them under orders that the men were to be slain whenever
and wherever found: the women and children could be taken pris-
oners but were not to be killed. The recalcitrant Indians finally
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920, periodical, 1919; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101075/m1/30/: accessed June 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.