The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920 Page: 30
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
believed that the hostile tribes surely could be more easily and
economically controlled were they corralled on more or less limited
tracts of land where it would be possible to supervise them more
closely. For these reasons it was decided to begin to concentrate
the Indian tribes on certain reserves selected for them. Concentra-
tion reserves were not unthought-of before this time but the time
for attempting their inauguration had not before seemed ripe.
Ownership of the land in severalty and the extension over the In-
dians of United States law and the jurisdiction of the United States
courts were a part of the ultimate plan.
The Verde reservation abandoned.--The first transfer gave the
Verde reservation to the whites and transferred the Tontos living
there to San C'arlos. With true courage the Indians there had be-
gun their new life. Without adequate implements they had dug
ditches and planted crops. Their lands had been promised to them
by General Crook and they were unwilling to leave them. He him-
self refused to give military aid in transferring the Indians by
force for he felt the injustice of the action. Though reluctant,
the Indians submitted peaceably to the transfer.
The White Motuntain Coyoteros removed.--More unjust still was
the removal of the White Mountain Coyoteros from their homes in
the White Mountains to San Carlos. They had steadfastly main-
tained a peaceful attitude toward the whites, assisting in the capture
of hostiles. Comfortably located in their secluded mountains, these
Indians were regularly raising greater crops than all of the rest of
the Apaches put together. But that the cost of the agency admin-
istration might be lessened and that the trade of these Indians
might be diverted from New Mexico to Arizona "where it properly
belonged" the transfer was made and all former promises were set
aside. A majority of the White Mountain Coyoteros refused to
move but the rest were finally prevailed upon to migrate. The
state of their minds is clearly read in the sanguinary quarrel that
added to the general confusion and discomfort of the journey.
The hostility of the Pinals who were already at San Carlos and
with whom the White Mountain Coyoteros had a hereditary feud,
led many of these newcomers to leave San Carlos in the fall of
1875 and seek refuge with their cousins on the Chiricahua reserva-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920, periodical, 1919; (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101075/m1/36/: accessed November 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.